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Happiness is like those palaces in fairy tales whose gates are guarded by dragons: we must fight in order to conquer it.
Alexandre Dumas
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ו־ (v'-)

  1. And.

Usage notes

  • According to traditional grammar, ו־ takes a few different forms, depending on the word to which it is attached.
    • The default form, used when none of the below rules applies, is וְ־ (v'-). It is also the only form in ordinary use in colloquial Modern Hebrew.
    • When a word begins with יְ־ (y'-), ו־ attaches to it to produce וִי־ (vi-).
    • When a word begins with one of the labial consonants (ב, ו, מ, or פ, acronymized as בומ״ף (bumáf)), or when the first vowel in a word is the sheva (the vowel in בְ) and the first consonant is not י, the form וּ־ (u-) is used.
  • In Ancient Hebrew, ו־ was used before every item of a list except the first; in Modern Hebrew, it's usually only used before the last item, like English and.
  • In Ancient Hebrew, if ו־ was attached to a verb, it would often "flip" its conjugation; a verb in the perfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew's past tense) would use the suffix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's future tense), and a verb in the imperfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew future tense) would use the prefix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's past tense). This behavior is called וי״ו ההיפוך (vav hahipúkh) "the ו of flipping"; unlike the ordinary וי״ו החיבור (vav hakhibúr) "the ו of connection", it does not necessarily have a connective sense. Additionally, vav hahipukh often used a different vowel from what the ordinary vav hakhibur would, and occasionally caused the accent to shift.[1] [2]


  • Notes:
  1. ^
  2. ^

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