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까지

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Life is made of ever so many partings welded together.
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Korean

Particle

까지 (ggaji)

A special particle (보조사, bojosa) generally meaning until, till, by (a time), up to. 까지 (ggaji) can be used in three situations.

  1. To illustrate the extent of a finished action or situation.
    • 나는 한 시부터 늦게까지 공부했어요.
      Na-neun han si-buteo neutge-ggaji gongbu-haesseoyo.
      "I studied from one o’clock until late."
    • 매리가 부산에서 서울까지 열차로 갔어요.
      Mary-ga Busan-eseo Seoul-ggaji yeolcha-ro gasseoyo.
      "Mary went as far as/to Seoul by train."
  2. To illustrate to what extent an action will continue.
    • 일년 더 걸려도 서울대에 입학할 때까지 공부하기로 결정했어요.
      Illyeon deo geollyeodo Seoul-dae-e ippak-hal tte-ggaji gongbu-hagi-ro gyeoljeong-haesseoyo.
      "Even if it takes one more year I have decided that I will study until I get into Seoul National University."
  3. To illustrate the degree or intensity of a situation.
    • 존이 김치를 이렇게까지 좋아할 줄 몰랐어요.
      John-i gimchi-reul ireokke-ggaji chowahal jul mollasseoyo.
      "I had no idea how much John liked kimchi."

Usage notes

Used after nouns, noun phrases, nominalized verbs in (gi) form, as well as adjectives in (ge) form.

Related terms

  • 부터 (buteo, from (a place)), 에서 (eseo, from (a time))

References

Elsewhere on the web

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