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Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary
Life is a succession of lessons enforced by immediate reward, or, oftener, by immediate chastisement.Ernest Dimnet
See also Appendix:Variations of "en"
- 1 English
- 2 Dutch
- 3 Finnish
- 4 German
- 5 Hungarian
- 6 Spanish
- 7 Swedish
- 8 Welsh
- Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb.
- Can be used to denote the plural form of a small number of native English words whose etymology goes back to Germanic languages.
- When attached to certain adjectives, it forms a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make (adjective). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction can also be done to certain (fewer) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, to give (noun) to.
attached to certain adjectives
- When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of (noun). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language.
attached to certain nouns
- A suffix required by polysyllabic verbs in their infinitive form.
- See Category:Dutch verbs.
- A suffix added to nouns or other parts of speech to form a verb
- fax - faxen
- A suffix which is appended to most nouns to make them plural.
- See Category:Dutch plurals.
- For example, Dutch nouns ending in -ing are pluralized by appending -en: verzameling → verzamelingen.
- A suffix required by plural forms of the present and past tenses
- ik maak -- wij maken
- A suffix required by all strong verbs in the past participle
- spreken -- gesproken
- A suffix taken by adjectives used as nouns if they refer to the plural of persons
- groot -- de groten (the great ones)
- A suffix that forms adjectives that refer to materials
- A suffix taken by certain adverbs derived from prepositions
- Archaic -- a suffix used to form a number of weak case endings of the adjective or the article
- een -- ten enen male
- Archaic -- a suffix used to form the weak genitive of certain nouns
- de hertog -- des hertogen, a genitive preserved in 's-Hertogenbosch
- Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
- Suffix for the genitive plural. Usually preceded by the plural marker -i- or -j-, but may also have a consonant separator d after the plural marker if the words would otherwise have 3 consecutive vowels.
- (personal) Forms the impersonal potential present forms of verbs, appended to the infinitive, followed by the potential mood marker -ne-.
- No changes in infinitives of verbs that end in one a/ä, except for consonant gradation in verbs ending with -da/-dä and the doubled t in verbs ending with a vowel and -ta/-tä. This -en is preceded by the mood marker -ne-.
- juosta + -ne- + -en -> juostaneen
- nähdä + -ne- + -en -> nähtäneen
- haluta + -ne- + -en -> haluttaneen
- In verbs ending in -oa/-öä or -ua/-yä, the beginning stem is followed by -tta-/-ttä, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.
- sanoa, stem sano- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> sanottaneen
- kertoa, stem ker- + -to- > -ro- + -tta + -en -> kerrottaneen
- huolestua, stem huolestu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> huolestuttaneen
- saapua, stem saa- + -pu- > -vu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> saavuttaneen
- säilöä, stem säilö- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> säilöttäneen
- säilyä, stem säily- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> säilyttäneen
- häipyä, stem häi- + -py- > -vy- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> häivyttäneen
- In verbs ending in -aa/-ää or -ea/-eä, the beginning stem is followed by -etta-, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.
- paistaa, stem paist- + -etta- + -ne- + -en -> paistettaneen
- laskea, stem lask- + -etta- + -ne- + -en -> laskettaneen
- iskeä, stem isk- + -että- + -ne- + -en -> iskettäneen
- laittaa, stem lait- (another t disappears) + -etta- + -ne- + -en -> laitettaneen
- vaihtaa, stem vaih- + -t- > -d- + -etta- + -en- -> vaihdettaneen
- (possessive) A variant for the third-person possessive suffixes -nsa and -nsä, see the usage notes below.
- (third-person possessive suffix variant) When the third-person possessive suffix -nsa/-nsä is appended to nouns that are in singular and plural allative and translative and plural comitative, the S and A/Ä are very often omitted from the suffix and the last E of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -en. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable. This same omission takes very often place also in the long first infinitives, used in a shortened sentence expressing "(in order) to do" (see the meanings of -nsa and -nsä):
- A suffix of verbs in their infinitive form.
- A suffix which is appended to several nouns to make them plural.
- IPA: /ˈɛn/
- Creates adverbs from adjectives in front vowel words. The back vowel version is -an.
- Suffix indicating the third-person plural present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
- Suffix indicating the third-person plural present subjunctive of -ar verbs.
- Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -ar verbs
- Suffix for definite form singular of many common gender nouns, in particular those which end in a consonant or a stressed -i; see also -n.
- Suffix for definite form plural of neuter nouns ending with consonant.
- Suffix for the past participle of verbs belonging to the fourth (strong) declension, e.g. stjäla – stulen.
- Suffix which converts a few adjectives into adverbs
- möjlig (possible) -> möjligen (possibly)
Alteration of un (“‘one’”).
- IPA: /en/
-en f.; -yn m.
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