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-ni

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Classical Nahuatl

Suffix

-ni

  1. Marks a verb's habitual or customary present tense.

Finnish

Suffix

-ni (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun my:
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), me:
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause:
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause:
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive:
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular:
    • Tehtyäni läksyni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
      • (After) having done / After doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the long first infinitive:
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "I".
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "I".

Usage notes

  • The possessive suffix -ni is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, when expressing ownership or before a postposition, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "minä" before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -ni is very rare and only the genitive form "minun" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to standard Finnish, not to spoken Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

Derived terms

See also

Elsewhere on the web

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En-Fr

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