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Appendix:Irregular verbs:English

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Don't worry about your life; what you shall eat, or drink, or the clothing for your body. [Matthew 6:31]
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The following is a table of irregular verbs of the English language.

In the first column the verbs are numbered. The second column gives the simple form (the infinitive in the U.K.) followed by any other present tense forms of the verb. The preterite or past tense forms are listed in column three. The past participle forms are given in column four. The fifth column notes whether they are weak or strong and whether they belong to a subclass, and links to discussions elsewhere. Typical irregularities in weak verbs are the assimilation of dentals (bendedbent) and vowel reduction (*keepedkept).

simple form past tense past participle Notes
1 abide abided/abode abided/abode Strong, class 1
2 arise arose arisen Strong, class 1
3 awake awoke / awaked awoken / awaked Strong, class 6
4 be was, were been Suppletive. See: Indo-European copula.
5 bear bore born (given birth) /
borne (carried)
Strong, class 4
6 beat beat beaten / beat Strong, class 7
7 become became become Strong, class 4
8 befall befell befallen Strong, class 7
9 beget begot / begat (archaic) begot / begotten
10 begin began begun Strong, class 3
11 behold beheld beheld Strong, class 7
12 bend bent bent Weak with assimilation of dentals
13 bereave bereaved / bereft bereaved / bereft Strong, class 6
14 beseech besought / beseeched besought / beseeched Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
15 beset beset beset Weak with assimilation of dentals
16 bespeak bespoke bespoke / bespoken
17 bestrew bestrewed bestrewed / bestrewn
18 bet bet / betted bet / betted Weak with assimilation of dentals
19 betake betook betaken
20 bethink bethought bethought
21 bid (at auction) bid bid Weak with assimilation of dentals
22 bid (greet / request / say) bade / bid bade / bidden / bid Strong, class 5
23 bide bode / bided bode / bided Strong, class 1
24 bind bound bound Strong, class 3
25 bite bit bitten / bit Strong, class 1
26 bleed bled bled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
27 blend blent UK / blended blended
28 bless blest / blessed blest / blessed
29 blow blew blown Strong, class 7
30 break broke broken Strong, class 4
31 breastfeed breastfed breastfed
32 breed bred bred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
33 bring brought brought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
34 broadcast broadcast broadcast Weak
35 browbeat browbeat browbeat / browbeaten Strong, class 7
36 build built built Weak with assimilation of dentals
37 burn burnt / burned burnt / burned Weak with assimilation of dentals
38 burst burst burst Strong, class 3
39 bust busted / bust busted / bust
40 buy bought bought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
41 can could been able to Preterite-present; defective
42 cast cast cast Weak with assimilation of dentals
43 catch caught caught Weak - a French loanword conjugated perhaps by analogy with teach-taught
44 chide chid / chided chid / chidden Strong, class 5
45 choose chose chosen Strong, class 2
46 cleave (split apart) clove cloven Strong, class 2
47 cleave (cling to) cleft / cleaved cleft / cleaved Weak with vowel reduction
48 cling clung clung Strong, class 3
49 colorbreed colorbred colorbred
50 come came come Strong, class 4
51 cost (intransitive: be priced at) cost cost Weak with assimilation of dentals
52 creep crept crept Strong, class 2
53 crow crowed / crew (archaic) crowed / crew (archaic)
54 cut cut cut Weak with assimilation of dentals
55 deal dealt dealt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
56 dig dug dug
57 dive dived, US dove dived, US dove Strong, class 2
58 do (irregular 3rd sing.: does [dʌz]) did done Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon"
59 draw drew drawn Strong, class 6
60 dream dreamt / dreamed dreamt / dreamed Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
61 drink drank drunk Strong, class 3
62 drive drove driven Strong, class 1
63 dwell dwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled Weak with assimilation of dentals
64 eat ate eaten Strong, class 5
65 enwind enwound enwound
66 fall fell fallen Strong, class 7
67 feed fed fed Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
68 feel felt felt Weak with assimilation of dentals
69 fight fought fought Strong, class 3
70 find found found Strong, class 3
71 fit (in all meanings besides tailoring) fit fit Weak with assimilation of dentals
72 fit (to tailor, adapt size) fit / fitted fit / fitted
73 flee fled fled Weak with vowel reduction
74 fling flung flung Strong, class 3
75 fly flew / flied (baseball) flown / flied (baseball) Strong, class 2
76 forbear forbore forborne
77 forbid forbade / forbid forbidden / forbid Strong, class 5
78 forecast forecast / UK forecasted forecast / UK forecasted Weak with assimilation of dentals
79 forego forewent foregone Suppletive: See Go (verb).
80 forefeel forefelt forefelt
81 foreknow foreknew foreknown
82 forerun foreran forerun
83 foresee foresaw foreseen Strong, class 5
84 foreshow foreshowed foreshown / foreshowed
85 forespeak forespoke forespoken
86 foretell foretold foretold Weak with Rückumlaut
87 forget forgot forgotten / forgot Strong, class 5
89 forgive forgave forgiven Strong, class 5
90 forgo forwent forgone Supplitive: See Go (verb).
91 forsake forsook forsaken Strong, class 6
92 forswear forswore forsworn
93 freeze froze frozen Strong, class 2
94 get got got / US gotten Strong, class 5
95 ghostwrite ghostwrote ghostwritten
96 gild gilt / gilded gilt / gilded
97 give gave given Strong, class 5
98 go went gone Supplitive: See Go (verb).
99 grave (to carve) graved graven / graved
100 grind (all senses besides dancing) ground ground
101 grow grew grown Strong, class 7
102 hagride hagrode hagridden
103 handwrite handwrote handwritten
104 hang (suspend, float in the air) hung hung Preterite-present strong preterit comes from the old p.p.
105 have (irregular 3rd sing.: has) had had
106 hear heard heard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
107 heave (Nautical term) heaved / hove heaved / hove
108 hew hewed hewn Strong, class 7
109 hide hid hidden
110 hit hit hit Weak with assimilation of dentals
111 hold held held Strong, class 7
112 housesit housesat housesat
113 hurt hurt hurt Weak with assimilation of dentals
114 input input / inputted input / inputted Weak with assimilation of dentals
115 inset inset inset Weak with assimilation of dentals
116 interbreed interbred interbred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
117 interweave interwove interwoven Strong, class 7
118 keep kept kept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
119 ken kenned / kent kenned / kent
120 kneel knelt / US kneeled knelt / US kneeled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
121 knit knit / knitted knit / knitted Weak with assimilation of dentals
122 know knew known Strong, class 7
123 lay (to put, to place; transitive) laid laid Weak; irregular only in spelling
124 lead led led Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
125 lean leaned / UK, leant leaned / UK leant Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
126 leap leapt / leaped leapt / leaped Strong, class 7
127 learn learned / UK learnt learned / UK learnt Weak with assimilation of dentals
128 leave left left Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
129 lend lent lent Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
130 let let let Strong, class 7
131 lie (to put oneself horizontally (not talking untruthfully); intransitive) lay lain Strong, class 5
132 light lit / lighted lit / lighted Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
133 lip-read lip-read lip-read
134 lose lost lost Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
135 make made made Weak
136 may might (none) Preterite-present; defective
137 mean meant meant Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
138 meet met met Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
139 miscast miscast miscast
140 mishear misheard misheard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
141 mislay mislaid mislaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
142 mislead misled misled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
143 misread misread misread Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
144 misspell misspelled / UK misspelt misspelled / UK misspelt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
145 mistake mistook mistaken Strong, class 6
146 misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood Strong, class 6
147 mow mowed mown / US mowed Strong, class 7
148 outbid outbid outbid / outbidden Weak with assimilation of dentals
149 outdo outdid outdone
150 outgrow outgrew outgrown Strong, class 7
151 outrun outran outrun Strong, class 3
152 outsell outsold outsold Weak with Rückumlaut
153 overcast overcast overcast Weak with assimilation of dentals
154 overcome overcame overcome Strong, class 4
155 overdo overdid overdone
156 overdraw overdrew overdrawn Strong, class 6
157 overeat overate overeaten Strong, class 5
158 overhang overhung overhung Preterite-present
159 overhear overheard overheard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
160 overlay overlaid overlaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
161 overlie overlay overlain Strong, class 5
162 overpay overpaid overpaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
163 override overrode overridden Strong, class 1
164 overrun overran overrun Strong, class 3
165 oversee oversaw overseen Strong, class 5
166 oversell oversold oversold Weak with Rückumlaut
167 overshoot overshot overshot Strong, class 2
168 oversleep overslept overslept Strong, class 7
169 overtake overtook overtaken Strong, class 6
170 overthrow overthrew overthrown Strong, class 7
171 panic panicked panicked
172 partake partook partaken Strong, class 6
173 pay paid paid Weak; irregular only in spelling
174 pen (enclose) penned / pent penned / pent
175 picnic picknicked picknicked
176 plead pled / pleaded pled / pleaded Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
177 pre-set pre-set pre-set
178 proofread proofread proofread Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
179 prove proved / prove proved / US proven borrowed French verb
180 put put put Weak with assimilation of dentals
181 quit quit (all other uses)/ quitted (leave a room) quit (all other uses / quitted (leave a room) Weak with assimilation of dentals
182 read read (IPA: /red/, sounds like "red") read (IPA: /red/, sounds like "red") Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
183 reave reft / rove reft / reaven Strong, class 6
184 rebind rebound rebound
185 rebuild rebuilt rebuilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
186 recast recast recast Weak with assimilation of dentals
187 redo redid redone
188 re-lay (for example tiles) re-laid re-laid Weak; irregular only in spelling
189 remake remade remade Weak
190 rend rent / US rended rent / US rended
191 repay repaid repaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
192 rerun reran rerun Strong, class 3
193 resell resold resold Weak with Rückumlaut
194 reset reset reset Weak with assimilation of dentals
195 rethink rethought rethought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
196 rewind rewound rewound
197 rewrite rewrote rewritten Strong, class 1
198 rid rid / ridded rid / ridded
199 ride rode ridden Strong, class 1
200 ring rang rung Strong, class 3
201 rise rose risen Strong, class 1
202 rive rived / rove rived / riven Strong, class 1
203 run ran run Strong, class 3
204 saw sawed sawed / sawn
205 say (irregular 3rd sing. pronunciation: says [sɛz]) said said Weak
206 see saw seen Strong, class 5
207 seek sought sought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
208 sell sold sold Weak with Rückumlaut
209 send sent sent Weak with assimilation of dentals
210 set set set Weak
211 sew sewed sewn / sewed
212 shake shook shaken Strong, class 6
213 shall should (none) Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
214 shave shaved / shove shaved / shaven Strong, class 6
215 shear shore / sheared shorn / sheared Strong, class 4
216 shed shed shed Strong, class 7
217 shine shone (all uses except "polish")/ shined shone (all uses except "polish")/ shined Strong, class 1
218 shit shitted / shit / shat shitted / shit / shat Strong, class 1
210 shite shit / shat / shited shit / shat / shited Strong, class 1
220 shoe shoed / shod shoed / shod Weak with vowel reduction
221 shoot shot shot Strong, class 2
222 show showed shown / showed
223 shrink shrank / US shrunk shrunk / US shrunken Strong, class 3
224 shrive shrove / shrived shriven
225 shut shut shut Weak
226 sing sang sung Strong, class 3
227 sink sank sunk Strong, class 3
228 sit sat sat / sitten / setten Strong, class 5
229 slay slew / slayed slain / slayed Strong, class 6
230 sleep slept slept Strong, class 7
231 slide slid slid Strong, class 1
232 sling slung / slang slung Strong, class 3
233 slink slunk / slinked slunk / slinked Strong, class 3
234 slit slit slit Strong, class 1
235 smell smelled US / smelt smelled US / smelt Weak with assimilation of dentals
236 smite smote smitten / smote Strong, class 1
237 sneak sneaked / snuck US sneaked / snuck US
238 sow sowed sowed / sown Strong, class 7
239 speak spoke spoken Strong, class 5
240 speed sped / US speeded sped / US speeded Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
241 spell spelled US / spelt spelled US / spelt Weak
242 spend spent spent Weak
243 spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt Weak
244 spin spun / AusE span spun Strong, class 3
245 spit spat / US spit spat / US spit
246 split split split Weak
247 spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt Weak
248 spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
249 spread spread spread Weak with assimilation of dentals
250 spring sprang / US sprung sprung Strong, class 3
251 stand stood stood Strong, class 6
252 steal stole stolen Strong, class 4
253 stick stuck stuck
254 sting stung stung Strong, class 3
255 stink stank / stunk stunk Strong, class 3
256 strew strewed strewn / strewed
257 stride strode stridden Strong, class 1
258 strike (delete) struck stricken
259 strike (hit) struck struck / stricken
260 string strung strung Weak with naturally developing intransitive strong form
261 strive strove / strived striven / strived Strong, class 1
262 swear swore sworn Strong, class 6
263 sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
264 sweep swept swept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
265 swell swelled swollen / swelled Strong, class 3
266 swim swam swum Strong, class 3
267 swing swung swung Strong, class 3
268 take took taken Strong, class 6
269 teach taught taught Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
270 tear tore torn Strong, class 4
271 tell told told Weak with Rückumlaut
272 think thought thought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
273 thrive thrived / US throve thrived / US thriven Strong, class 1
274 throw threw thrown Strong, class 7
275 thrust thrust thrust
276 tread trod trodden / trod Strong, class 5
277 unbind unbound unbound Strong, class 3
278 undergo underwent undergone
279 underlie underlay underlain Strong, class 5
280 understand understood understood Strong, class 6
281 undertake undertook undertaken Strong, class 6
282 underwrite underwrote underwritten Strong, class 1
283 undo undid undone
284 unwind unwound unwound Strong, class 3
285 uphold upheld upheld Strong, class 7
286 upset upset upset Weak with assimilation of dentals
287 wake woke / waked woken / waked Strong, class 6
288 waylay waylaid waylaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
289 wear wore worn
290 weave wove woven Strong, class 7
291 wed wed / wedded wed / wedded Weak with assimilation of dentals
292 weep wept wept Strong, class 7
293 wend went (archaic) went (archaic)
294 wet wet / wetted wet / wetted Weak with assimilation of dentals
295 will (except as a transitive verb) would (none) Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
296 win won won Strong, class 3
297 wind wound wound Strong, class 3
298 withdraw withdrew withdrawn Strong, class 6
299 withhold withheld withheld Strong, class 7
300 withstand withstood withstood Strong, class 6
301 work (transitive) worked /
wrought (uncommon / archaic)
worked /
wrought (uncommon / archaic)
Weak
302 wring wrung wrung Strong, class 3
303 write wrote written Strong, class 1
304 zinc zincked / zinced zincked / zinced

Notes

These verbs from the list above are spelt the same in the simple past as in the present tense (excluding compounds such as set, beset, inset, upset etc.): beat, bet, bid, burst, bust, cast, cost, cut, fit, hit, hurt, knit, let, list, put, quit, read, rid, set, shed, shit, shut, slit, spit, split, spread, sweat, thrust, wed, wet. (Note that of all the preceding, only "read" is pronounced differently in the past than in the present.)

The simple past and the past participle are usually the same if the simple past ends in -ed. Exceptions include show - showed - shown (but note that it can also be show - showed - showed) and "prove - proved - proven." (Again, note that "prove - proved - proved" is also acceptable).

It should be noted that many English verbs that are irregular in one dialect will be regular in another. In many cases, such as spell (spelt vs. spelled), learn (learnt vs. learned) and spill (spilt vs. spilled), American English uses the regular form, while British English tends to favour the irregular. In other cases, the opposite is true (dived and sneaked in British English versus dove and snuck in American English). Australian English tends to follow British practice, while Canadian English often sides with American usage. For further information, refer to American and British English differences.

Forms marked UK are used in the United Kingdom but are rarely found or are considered incorrect in the US. Forms marked US are used in the United States but are rare or considered incorrect in Britain. Forms with neither label may be considered standard in both main varieties of English.

See also

External links