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Appendix:Latin third declension

Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary
Life moves on, whether we act as cowards or heroes. Life has no other discipline to impose, if we would but realize it, than to accept life unquestioningly. Everything we shut our eyes to, everything we run away from, everything we deny, denigrate or despise, serves to defeat us in the end. What seems nasty, painful, evil, can become a source of beauty, joy, and strength, if faced with an open mind. Every moment is a golden one for him who has the vision to recognize it as such.
Henry Miller
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Nouns

Description

Latin nouns of the third declension comprise consonant stems and i-stems. They are of all three genders, and have genitives in -is. The forms of the nominative and vocative singular are identical to each other and are often quite different from other cases, in which case both stems are given in citation forms.

Words borrowed from Greek's third declension are inflected with a varying mixture of Greek and Latin case endings.

Examples

Consonant stem

Citation form: homō, hominis m.

Case Singular Plural
nominative homō homin·ēs
genitive homin·is homin·um
dative homin·ī homin·ibus
accusative homin·em homin·ēs
ablative homin·e homin·ibus
vocative homō homin·ēs
locative homin·ī homin·ibus
Neuter consonant stem

Citation form: nōmen, nōminis n.

Case Singular Plural
nominative nōmen nōmin·a
genitive nomin·is nomin·um
dative nomin·ī nomin·ibus
accusative nōmen nōmin·a
ablative nomin·e nomin·ibus
vocative nōmen nōmin·a
locative nomin·ī nomin·ibus

I-stem

Citation form: nox, noctis f.

Case Singular Plural
nominative nox noct·ēs
genitive noct·is noct·ium
dative noct·ī noct·ibus
accusative noct·em noct·ēs
ablative noct·e noct·ibus
vocative nox noct·ēs
locative noct·ī noct·ibus
Neuter i-stem

Citation form: animal, animālis n.

Case Singular Plural
nominative animal animāl·ia
genitive animāl·is animāl·ium
dative animāl·ī animāl·ibus
accusative animal animāl·ia
ablative animāl·ī animāl·ibus
vocative animal animāl·ia
locative animāl·ī animāl·ibus

Greek declensions

Citation form: aer, aeris m, sometimes f

Case Singular Plural
nominative aer aer·ēs
genitive aer·is aer·um
dative aer·ī aer·ibus
accusative aer·a / aer·em aer·ēs
ablative aer·e aer·ibus
vocative aer aer·ēs
locative aer·ī aer·ibus

Citation form: tigris, tigridis common

Case Singular Plural
nominative tigris tigr·ēs / tigrid·ēs
genitive tigrid·is / tigr·is tigr·ium
dative tigrid·ī / tigr·ī tigr·ibus
accusative tigr·im / tigr·in tigr·is / tigrid·as
ablative tigrid·e / tigr·ī tigr·ibus
vocative tigris tigr·ēs / tigrid·ēs
locative tigrid·ī / tigr·ī tigr·ibus

Adjectives

Description

Latin nouns of the third declension comprise consonant stems and i-stems. The consonant stems include the comparative form of adjectives. This declension is divided into three subcategories: adjectives of one termination (which includes present participles), adjectives of two terminations (one for m. and f., and one for n., and adjectives of three terminations (which are generally -er m., -ris f. and -re n.).

Examples

One-termination consonant stem

Citation form: vetus, -eris

Case m f singular n. singular m f plural n. plural
nominative vetus vetus veter·ēs veter·a
genitive veter·is veter·is veter·um veter·um
dative veter·ī veter·ī veter·ibus veter·ibus
accusative veter·em vetus veter·ēs veter·a
ablative veter·e veter·e veter·ibus veter·ibus
vocative vetus vetus veter·ēs veter·a
locative veter·ī veter·ī veter·ibus veter·ibus

One-termination i-stem

Citation form: atrōx, -ōcis

Case m f singular n. singular m f plural n. plural
nominative atrōx atrōx atrōc·ēs atrōc·ia
genitive atrōc·is atrōc·is atrōc·ium atrōc·ium
dative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus
accusative atrōc·em atrōx atrōc·ēs, ·īs atrōc·ia
ablative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus
vocative atrōx atrōx atrōc·ēs atrōc·ia
locative atrōc·ī atrōc·ī atrōc·ibus atrōc·ibus

Two-termination consonant stem (comparatives)

Citation form: melior, -us

Case m f singular n. singular m f plural n. plural
nominative melior melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
genitive meliōr·is meliōr·is meliōr·um meliōr·um
dative meliōr·ī meliōr·ī meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus
accusative meliōr·em melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
ablative meliōr·e meliōr·e meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus
vocative melior melius meliōr·ēs meliōr·a
locative meliōr·ī meliōr·ī meliōr·ibus meliōr·ibus

Two-termination i-stem

Citation form: tristis, -e

Case m f singular n. singular m f plural n. plural
nominative trist·is trist·e trist·ēs trist·ia
genitive trist·is trist·is trist·ium trist·ium
dative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus
accusative trist·em trist·e trist·ēs, -īs trist·ia
ablative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus
vocative trist·is trist·e trist·ēs trist·ia
locative trist·ī trist·ī trist·ibus trist·ibus

See also