Visit the forum if you have a language query!

Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₁

Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary
Ideas won't work unless you do.
Source Unknown
Jump to: navigation, search
Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₁ar-mo- arm Osset. arm, Arm. armunk/armung, Lat. [[armus#Template:lang:la|armus]], OCS рамо (ramo), Goth. 𐌰𐍂𐌼𐍃 (arms), Eng. earm/arm, Skr. ईर्म (īrmá), Old Prussian irmo, Gm. aram/Arm, ON armr, Gk. ἄρθρον (arthron)/
*h₁dónts tooth Lat. [[dens#Template:lang:la|dens]], Gk. ὀδούς (odous), Welsh dant, Lith. dantis, Skr. दत् (dát), Marathi /dat, Eng. tōþ/tooth, Gm. zand/Zahn, Goth. tunþus, Russ. десна (desna), Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Pers. /دندان (dandān), Kashmiri dãd, Ir. dét/déad, ON tǫnn, Osset. dændag
*h₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. есть (jest'), Polish jeść, Skr. अत्ति (átti), Av. ad, Arm. utel/udel, Hitt. 𒂊𒀉𒈪 (eidmi), Luw. ad-; az-, Palaic ata-, Lat. [[edo#Template:lang:la|edō]], Oscan edum, Gk. ἔδω (edō), Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. itan, OIr. esse, Thrac. esko-, Toch. B yesti, OCS ясти (jasti)
*h₁edʰ- sharp Russ. ель (jel'), Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Ir. aidlen/ailim, Old Pruss. addle, Eng. ellærn/elder, Pol. jodła, Gk. elate
*h₁eh₁ter- intestines Gk. ἦτορ (ētor)/, OIr. inathar, Lat. uterus, ON ǽðr, OEng. ǣdder, Gm. ādra/Ader
*h₁eh₂-ter- fire Arm. airel, Ir. áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Skr. अथर्वन् (átharvan)}, Av. ātarš, Pers. Āçiyādiya/آدر (ādar), Lat. āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis
*h₁ey- to go Skr. एति (éti), Av. aēiti, Gk. εἶμι (eimi), Lat. , Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i, OIr. ethaim; ethar, Pers. 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 (aitiy) /, OCS ити (iti), Luw. 𒄿𒄿 (iti), Goth. iddja, OEng. ēode, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. идти (idti), Polish [[iść#Template:lang:pl|iść]], Alb. ik
*h₁eibʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/—, Skr. यभति (yabhati), Russ. ебать (jebat'), Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. οἴφω (oiphō)/, Polish jebać
*h₁el- elbow Gm. elina/elle, Gk. ὠλένη (ōlenē), Arm. volok', Lith. uolektis, Ltv. olekts, Russ. локоть (lokot'), Skr. आणिi), Welsh elin, Eng. eln/ell, Ir. uilin/uille, Goth. aleina, ON aln, Alb. llërë/llânë, Av. arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, OCS pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Pers. ارن (āran, aran)
*h₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. ἀδήν (adēn), Lat. inguen, ON ökkvinn
*h₁epero- boar Lith. Vepriai, Ltv. vepris, Gm. ebur/Eber, OEng. eofor, Russ. вепрь (vepr'), Polish wieprz, Skr. वपति (vapati), Lat. aper; vepres, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thrac. ebros, ON jǫfurr, Gaul. eburo
*h₁er- goat Arm. oroj/oroč, Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. ἔριφος (eriphos), OHG irah, OCS jarici
*h₁erh₁gʷo- pea Gk. ὄροβος (orobos), OIr. orbaind, Welsh erfin, Lat. ervum, Gm. arawīz/Erbse, ON ertr, Skt. aravindam
*h₁es- to be OCS єстъ (estŭ), Russ. есть (est'), Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. ἐστί (esti), Ir. am/, Skr. अस्ति (ásti), Av. asti, Lat. esse, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. ē, Polish jest, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), ON es, Hitt. 𒂊𒌍𒍣 (ēszi), Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic aš-, Toch. e/ei, Pers. 𐎠𐎿𐎫𐎡𐎹 (astiy) / است (ast)
*h₁eu- to dress Av. aoθra, Russ. обуть (obut'), Polish obuć, Lith. aũti, Ltv. àut, Lat. exuō; induō; subūcula, Arm. aganum/akanum; aganim/akanim, Old Prussian auclo, Umb. anovihimu, OIr. fúan, Welsh gŵn, OCS obujǫ; izuti, Alb. mbath, Toch. B ewe
*h₁euhdʰ-r̥- udder Lith. ūdruoju, Eng. ūder/udder, Gm. ūtir/Euter, ON jūgr, Gk. οὖθαρ (outhar), Skr. ऊधस् (ū́dhas), Lat. [[uber#Template:lang:la|ūber]], Russ. вымя (vimja), Polish wymię
*h₁eus- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. εὕω (heuō), Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣmerge/ember, ON usli, Skr. ओषति (oati),
*h₁ewegʷʰ- to praise Skr. वाघत् (vāghat), Av. raštarəvaġənti, Gk. εὔχομαι (eukhomai), Arm. gog/kok, Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*h₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russ. ёж (jož), Lith. ežys, Ltv. ezis, Phryg. eksis, Gk. ἐχῖνος (ekhinos), Gm. igil/Igel, Arm. ozni, OEng. igil, ON ígul, Osset. wyzyn, Polish jeż, Phryg. eksis, Alb. esh
*h₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. ἐκ (ek)/ἐξ (eks), Gaul. ex-, OIr. ass; acht; echtar, Russ. из (iz), Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iš, Ltv. iz, Old Prussian is, Welsh a
*h₁éḱwos horse Lat. [[equus#Template:lang:la|equus]], Toch. yuk/yakwe, Gaul. epos, Gk. ἵππος (hippos), Skr. अश्व (áśva), Av. asva-, Lith. ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, Eng. eoh/—, Gm. ehwaz/—, Goth. aiƕtundi, ON iór, Hitt. aśuwas, Arm. ēš, Welsh ebol, Ir. ech/each, Thrac. esvas, Lyc. esbe-, Phryg. es', Pers. 𐎠𐎿 (asa) / اسپ (asp), Osset. jæfs/æfsæ, Venetic ekvon, Alb. sasë
*h₁nḗh₃mn̥ name Toch. ñom/ñem, Lat. [[nomen#Template:lang:la|nōmen]], Umbrian 𐌄𐌌𐌏𐌍 (nome), Eng. nama/name, Gm. namo/Name, ON nafn, Goth. 𐌽𐌰𐌼𐍉 (namō), Skr. नामन् (nā́man), Av. nąman, Gk. ὄνομα (onoma), OCS имѧ (imę), Russ. имя (imja), Alb. emër/êmën, Ir. ainm, Welsh enw, Hitt. 𒆷𒀀𒈠𒀭 (lāman), Kamviri nom, Pers. 𐎴𐎠𐎶 (nāma) / نام (nām), Arm. anun, Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes
*h₁oh₁s- mouth Skr. आस् (ās)); ओष्ठ (óṣṭha), Av. aosta, Lat. [[os#Template:lang:la|ōs]], Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. уста (usta), Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, Eng. ōr/—, Hitt. aiš, ON oss
*h₁oh₁ḱ-u- quick Gk. ὠκύς (ōkus), Lat. ōcior, OWelsh di-auc, Av. āsu, Skr. आशु (āśú), Russ. ястреб (jastreb), OCS jastrębŭ
*h₁omH₁-so- shoulder Gk. ὦμος (ōmos), Lat. umĕrus, Skr. अंस (asa), Goth. ams, ON ass, Toch. es/āntse, Arm. us
*h₁oḱtō(u) eight Arm. ut'/ut'/ut'ĕ, Alb. tëte/tetë, Lith. aštuoni, Ltv. astoņi, Gaul. oxtū, Gm. ahto/acht, Eng. eahta/eight, Gk. ὀκτώ (oktō), Av. ašta, Ir. ocht, Kashmiri ā.h, Lyc. aitãta-, Kamviri u, Lat. octō, Oscan uhto, ON átta, Old Prussian astōnjai, Osset. ast/ast, Pers. ašta/هشت (hašt), OCS осмь (osmĭ), Polish osiem, Russ. восемь (vosem'), Skr. अष्ट (aa), Toch. okät/okt, Goth. ahtau, Welsh wyth
*h₁reudʰ-ó- red Lat. ruber, Eng. rēad/red, Lith. raudonas, Ltv. ruds, Skr. रुधिर (rudhira), Russ. рдеть (rdet'), Gk. ἐρυθρός (eruthros), Toch. rtär/ratre, Av. raoðita, Goth. rauþs, ON rjóðr, Gm. rōt/rot, Oscan Rufriis, Umbrian rufru, OIr. ruadh Welsh rhudd, Gaul. Roudos
*h₁rebʰ- to roof Gk. ἐρέφω (erephō), OCS rebro, Russ. ребро (rebro), Eng. ribb/rib, ON rif, Gm. ribba/Rippe, Polish żebro
*h₁rep- to snatch Lat. rapere, Gk. ἐρέπτομαι (ereptomai); ἁρπάζω (harpazō), Lith. ap-répti, Eng. reap, Gm. reifsen, Alb. rjep
*h₁reug- to vomit Russ. рыгать (rygat'), Polish rzygać, Lith. riaugėti, Ltv. raugāties, Gk. ἐρεύγομαι (ereugomai), Lat. ructāre, Eng. rēocan/reek, Gm. rouhhan/rauchen; itruchen/, ON reykja, Pers. āroġ, Arm. vorcam/vordzam,
*h₁rebʰ- to roof Gk. ἐρέφω (erephō), OCS rebro, Russ. ребро (rebro), Eng. ribb/rib, ON rif, Gm. ribba/Rippe, Polish żebro
*h₁rep- to snatch Lat. rapere, Gk. ἐρέπτομαι (ereptomai); ἁρπάζω (harpazō), Lith. ap-répti, Eng. reap, Gm. reifsen, Alb. rjep
*h₁reugʰmen- cream Lith. rūgti, Ltv. raugs, Av. raoġna, Pers. /roġān, ON rjúmi, Eng. rēam/ream, Gm. roum/Rahm, Alb. vrug
*h₁reus-men- throat Skr. रोमन्थ (romantha), Lat. rūmen, Welsh rhumen, Lith. raumuo, Ltv. raumins
*h₁éh₃g-o- berry Toch. oko, Lith. úoga, Ltv. oga, OCS jagoda, Russ. ягода (jagoda), Polish jagoda, Goth. akran, ON akarn, Gm. ēker/Ecker, Eng. æcern/acorn, Ir. arni/àirne, Welsh eirin
*h₁ésh₂r̥- (nom-acc. *h₁ésh₂r̥, gen. *h₁esh₂n-ós) blood Skr. असृज् (ásṛj), Old Lat. aser, Lat. sanguen, Ir. iarn/iarann, Ltv. asins, Hitt. ēšar, Lyc. esêne-, Luw. ašhar-, Toch. ysār/yasar, Gk. ἔαρ (éar), Arm. ariwn
*h₁óh₂wyo- (nom-acc. *h₁óh₂wyom, gen. *h₁óh₂wyo-s) egg Lat. ōvum, Gk. ᾠόν (ōon), Russ. яйцо (jajtso), Gm. ei/Ei, Eng. ǣg/Cockney, Ir. /ubh, Welsh ŵy, Alb. ve/vo, ON egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Arm. dzu/cu, Pers. xāyah, OCS ajĭse, Kurd. hék
*h₁ói-no- one Alb. një/nji, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. οἶος (oios), Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Kamviri ev, Oscan uinus, ON einn, Old Prussian aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, OCS edinŭ, Polish jeden, Russ. один (odin), Skr. एक (eka), Lat. ūnus, Umbrian uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un