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Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₂

Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary
There's night and day, brother, both sweet things; sun, moon, and stars, brother, all sweet things; there's likewise a wind on the heath. Life is very sweet, brother; who would wish to die?
George Borrow
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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂ebl-o- apple Lith. obuolys, Ltv. ābols, Eng. æppel/apple, Russ. яблоко (jabloko), Ir. uball/ubhall, Gm. aphul/Apfel, Polish jabłko, Welsh afal, Old Prussian woble, Skr. अबल (abala), ON eple, Gaul. avallo, OCS аблъко (ablŭko)
h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Arm. ezn/yez(n)/yez(n), Ir. ag/agh, Welsh ael; eilion, Skr. अही (ahī), Av. azī
*h₂ego- fault, sin Skr. आगस् (ā́gas), Gk. ἄγος (agos), Eng. acan/ache
*akʷā- water Lat. aqua, Welsh aig, Russ. Ока (Oka), Goth. aha, Gm. aha/Ache, OEng. éa; īg/island, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-, ON á, Goth. aƕa
*h₂ep- water Skr. अप् (apha), Pers. 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 (apiyā) / آب (āb), Lith úpe ; *h₂p-isk- "fish" Lat. [[piscis#Template:lang:la|piscis]], Ir. íasc/iasc, Goth. fisks, ON fiskr, Eng. fisc/fish, Gm. fisc/Fisch, Russ. пескарь (peskar'), Polish piskorz
*h₂egʷs-ih₂- axe Lat. ascia, Eng. æx/axe, Gm. ackis/Axt, Gk. ἀξίνη (aksinē), ON øx, Goth. aqizi
*h₂egʷʰno- lamb OCS agnę, Russ. ягнёнок (jagnjonok), Gk. ἀμνός (amnos), Ir. úan/uan, Eng. ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Lat. agnus, Umb. habina, Pol. jagnię, Alb. enjë/êjë
*h₂eig- sick Lat. aeger, Toch. ekroill/aikare, ON eikenn; eikja/eikla, Lith. ingas, Ltv. angus, OCS jęsa, Russ. яга (jaga), Polish jędza, Eng. ācol, Arm. yekro/yegro, Alb. kë-ëk
*h₂eim- copy Hitt. imma, Lat. aemulus; imāgō; reimere; geminus, MIr. emon, Alb. gjysmë, Lith. jumis, Skt. yamá, Av.' yima
*h₂eiti- part Av. aēta, Oscan aeteis, Gk. αἴτιος (aitios)
*h₂eiw- vital force Skr. आयु (āyu), Lat. aevum, Ir. áes/aois, Av. āyū, Toch. A āym, Eng. æfre/ever, Gm. īo/je; êwig/ewig, Goth. aiws, ON ei, Gk. αἰών (aiōn), Alb. eshë
*h₂eiǵ- goat Skr. एड (eajá), Av. izaēna, Pers. azg, Arm. aic/aidz, Gk. αἴξ (aïx), Alb. edh, Lith ožỹs, Ltv. āzis
*h₂eiǵ- oak Lith. ąžuolas, Lat. aesculus, Gk. aigilōps; κράταιγος (krataigos), ON eik, Eng. āc/oak, Gm. eihha/Eiche, MIr. áesc, Alb. enjë
*h₂eiḱ- spear/pike Gk. aiklos?/, Lat. īcō, Old Prussian aysmis, OCS igla, Polish igła, Av. išarə, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, ON eigin, Russ. игла (igla)
*h₂eiḱ- to be master of, to possess Eng. āgan/ought, Goth. aigan, Gm. eigan/eigen, ON eiga, Skr. ईष्टेe), Av. īšti
*h₂ek-mon- stone Gk. ἄκμων (akmōn), Lith. akmuo, Ltv. akmens, Skr. अश्मन् (áśman), Av. asman, Russ. камень (kamen'), Eng. hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, ON hamarr, Hitt. aku, Pers. 𐎠𐎿𐎶𐎠𐎴𐎶 (asmānam)/, Gaul. acaunum, Gm. hamar/Hammer
*h₂el-yó- *h₂el-nó- other Lat. alius, Eng. elles/else; ōþer/other, Skr. अरण (araa), Gk. ἄλλος (allos), Oscan allo, Toch. ālak/allek, Arm. ayl, Gaul. alla, Ir. aile/eile, Welsh ail, Goth. alijs; anþar, Gm. elilenti/elend; andar/andere, ON elligar; annarr, Lyd. aλaś, Osset. /ændær
*h₂elbʰ-it- barley Alb. elb, Gk. ἄλφιτον (alphiton), Pashto ōrbaše, Wakhi arbəsi
*h₂elbʰó- white Lat. albus, Umbrian alfu, Hitt. alpas, Gm. Alps, Welsh elfydd, Russ. лебедь (lebed'), Eng. ælf/elf, Gk. ἀλφός (alphos), Lyc. alb-, ON alfr
*h₂elud- beer Lith. alus, Ltv. alus, Lat. alūmen, Eng. ealu/ale, Gk. ἀλύδοιμος (aludoimos)?/, ON ǫl, Old Prussian alu, OCS olŭ
*h₂en- ancestor Gk. ἀννίς (annís), Lat. anus; anna, Mess. ana, Gm. ano/Ahn, Lith. anyta, Hitt. hannas, Arm. han, Russ. внук (vnuk), Old Prussian ane, OIr. Ana
*h₂en- spirit Skr. अन (ana), Goth. uzanan; andi, OIr. animm; anál, Gk. ἄνεμος (ánemos), Lat. animus; anima, OCS vonja, Russ. вонь (von'), Welsh anysbryd, ON anda; ǫnd, Eng. eðian; ōþian, Welsh eneid, Av. åntya, Lith. anuoti, Arm. anjn; hov, Alb. ëj/âj, Oscan anamum, Toch. āñcäm/āñme
*h₂engwi- snake Lat. anguis; anguilla, Lith. angìs; ankštiraĩ; ungurys, OHG unc; angar/Engerling, Ir. escung/eascann, Welsh llys-yw-en; euod; euon, Russ. угорь (ugor'), Gk. ochis; échis; ἔγχελυς (enkhelus), OPruss. angurgis, Alb. thnegël, Toch auk, Arm. auj/iž, Skt. áhis, Av. aži
*h₂enh₁-ti- duck Lat. anas, Skr. आति (ātí), Oss. acc, Russ. утка (utka), Gm. anut/Ente, OEng. æned, ON ǫnd, Lith/Ltv. ántis, Alb. rosë, Gk. νῆττα (nētta)
*h₂enk- angle OHG ango, Osset. ængur, Skr. अङ्कka), Lat. ancus, Lith. anka, Ltv. āķis, Gk. onkos; ἄγκος (ankōn), Russ. угол (ugol), ON angi, Av. akupəsəmna, Welsh angad; crafanc, OIr. ēcath, Hitt. hink
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow Gk. ἄγχω (ankhō)/, Skr. अंहु (ahu), Av. ązahē, Russ. узкий (uzkij), Goth. aggwus, ON aungr, Arm. anjuk/ančug, Gm. engi/eng, Hitt. hamenk, OCS ǫzŭkŭ, Polish wąski, Lith. ankšta, Toch. ets/entse, OEng. enge, Welsh yng, Ir. cumung/cung, Lat. angor; angere, Alb. ang
*h₂ep- river, lake Hitt. 𒄩𒉺𒀀 (ḫapaa), Palaic apnas, Luw. 𒄩𒀀𒁉𒅖 (ḫāpis), Ltv. upe, Lith. upė, Old Prussian ape, Eng. ōfer/, Gm. /Ufer, Skr. अप् (áp), Av. afš, Lat. amnis, Toch. āp/āp
*h₂ep- to reach Av. apayeiti, Lat. apex, Skr. आप्त (āpta), Gk. ἅπτω (haptō), Arm. unim, Hitt. apanzi, Toch. oppäśśi/, Polish opaść
*h₂eps-eh₂- aspen Eng. æspe/aspen, Gm. aspa/Espe, ON ǫsp, Lith. epušė, Ltv. apse, Old Pruss. abse, Pol. osa, Gk. ἄσπρις (aspris), Lat. abiēs, Welsh aethnen
*h₂er- nut Lith. ruošutỹs, Russ. орех (orékh), Alb. arrë, Gk. árna, Pol. orzech, Hitt. harau
*h₂erg- to lock Gk. ἀρκέω (arkeō), Lat. arcēre, Arm. argel/arkel, Goth. arka, Old Prussian arkan, Polish arkan, Hitt. ark-, Toch. B ārk, Oscan trííbarakavúm, Lith. raktas; užrakinti
*h₂erH₁- to plow Toch. āre/āre, Lat. arō; aratrum, Gk. ἀροτήρ (arotēr), Lith. arti; ārklas, Ltv. art, OCS orati, Russ. орать (orat'), Arm. arawr, Pol. orać, Goth. arjan, OEng. erian, ON arðr, Welsh arddu; aradr, OIr. airim; arathar, OPruss. artoys, OHG erien
*h₂erǵó-, *h₂erǵí- white, shining Gk. ἄργυρος (arguros), Lat. arguō, Hitt. arkiš, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Eng. eorcnanstān/—, Gk. erchan?/—, Skr. अर्जुन (arjuna), Ir. argat/airgead, Av. arəzah, Welsh ariant, Oscan aragetud, Arm. arcat'/ardzat', Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Goth. unairkns
*h₂eu- to help Skr. अवति (ávati), Lat. aveō; avārus, Av. avaiti, Arm. aviun, Gaul. Avicantus, Gk. -aones?, Lith. aušti, Ltv. aust, OIr. con-oí, Toch. olar/aulāre, ON auð, OEng. īþe, Gm. ōdmuoti/, Welsh ewyllys; adaw
*h₂eug- to glance Gk. αὐγή (augē), Alb. ag; agoj, Russ. юг (jug), OCS jugŭ
*h₂eug- to increase Lith. augti, Ltv. augt, Lat. auctis, Gk. αὐξάνω (auksanō), Skr. उग्र (ugra), Toch. ok/auk, Eng. eacan/eke; weaxan/wax, Gm. ouh/auch; wahsan/wachsen, ON auka; vaxa, Goth. aukan; wahsjan, Old Prussian auginnons, Umbrian uhtur
*h₂euH₂o- *h₂éuh₂-yo- paternal grandfather, maternal uncle Lat. avus; avunculus, Gaul. avontīr, Gk. aia?, Lith. avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Arm. hav, OEng. ēam, Ir. aue/ó, Goth. awó, Gm. ōheim/Ohm; Awwe, OCS uy, Russ. уй (uj), Polish wuj, Hitt. huhhas; Alb. joshë
*h₂eus- dawn Lat. ver; Aurōra, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Gm. ōstra/Osten, Skr. उषस् (uas), Russ. утро (utro), Eng. ēast/east, Gk. ἠώς (hēōs), ON austr, Av. ušastara, Ir. fáir, Welsh gwawr, Alb. err
*h₂éwis (gen. *h₂wei-s) bird Lat. avis, Av. vīš, Skr. वि (vís), Arm. haw, Gk. ἀετός (aetos), Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Umb. avif, Ir. aoi, Welsh hwyad, Alb. vida
*h₂eǵʰero- lake Lith. ežeras, Ltv. ezers, Russ. озеро (ozero), Illyr. Oseriates, Gk. Ἀχέρων (Akherōn), OCS ѥзєро (jezero), Pol. jezioro, OPruss. assaran
*h₂eḱ- sharp Gk. ἄκρος (akros), Lat. ācer, Skr. अश्रि (aśri), OCS остръ (ostrŭ), Russ. ость; острый (ost'; ostryj), Ir. aicher/, Lith. aštrus, Ltv. asmens, Goth. ahs, Pers. /ās, Gaul. Akrotalus, Welsh eithiw, Oscan akrid, Umbrian peracri, Arm. asełn/aseġ/aseġ, Alb. athët, Toch. āk/āke, Eng. ecg/edge, ON egg, Gm. egga/Ecke, Polish ostry, XMK akrounoi
*h₂nḗr man; power Lat. neriōsus, Welsh nerth, Alb. njer, Skr. नृ (nṛ́), नर (nára), Luw. anarummi, Lyd. nãrś, Lith. noras, Russ. нрав (nrav), Gaul. Nertobriga, Arm. այր (ayr), Gk. ἀνήρ (anēr), Oscan 𐌓𐌈𐌈𐌍 (niir), Umbrian 𐌚𐌓𐌄𐌍 (nerf), Ir. nert/, Phryg. αναρ (anar)
*(H)néh₂s, nā́s nose Lat. [[nasus#Template:lang:la|nāsus]], Skr. नासा (nā́sā), OCS носъ (nosŭ), Russ. нос (nos), Lith. nosis, Ltv. nāss, Eng. nosu/nose, Av. nah, Gm. nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsu, Old Prussian nazy, Pers. nāham/, ON nös
*h₂ows- ear Lat. [[auris#Template:lang:la|auris]], Gk. οὖς (ous), Skr. उसि (usi), OCS ѹхо (uxo), Russ. уши (uši), Goth. auso, Lith. ausis, Ltv. auss, Gaul. ausia-, Alb. vesh, Gm. ōra/Ohr, OIr. au, Av. usi, Pers. gaušā/گوش (guš), Eng. ēare/ear, ON eyra, Arm. unkn/akanj/aganč, OPruss. āusins. See also Hausos.
*h₂ŕ̥tḱos bear Gk. ἄρκτος (arktos), Lat. [[ursus#Template:lang:la|ursus]], Skr. ऋक्ष (ṛkṣá), Pers. /خرس (khers), Arm. արջ (arj), Gaul. Artioni, Alb. arush/ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. ærs, Welsh arth, Av. aršam, Hitt. artagga
*h₁égni- fire Skr. अग्नि (agní), Hitt. 𒀀𒀝𒉌𒅖 (agnis), Lat. [[ignis#Template:lang:la|ignis]], Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS огнь (ognĭ), Polish ogień, Russ. огонь (ogon'), Alb. enjte
*h₂stḗr star Lat. [[stella#Template:lang:la|stēlla]], Gk. ἀστήρ (astēr), Gm. sterro/Stern, Eng. steorra/star, ON stjarna, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌽𐍉 (stairno), Arm. աստղ (astgh), Skr. स्तृ (stṛ́); तारा (tārā), Welsh seren, Toch. śre/śćirye, Kamviri âšto, Pers. /ستاره (setāre), Osset. sthaly/, Hitt. 𒄩𒀸𒋼𒅕𒍝 (ḫasterza), Kurd. stérk/estére
*h₂u-per over Lat. super, Gk. ὑπέρ (huper), Skr. उपरि (upari), Av. upairi, Eng. ofer/over, Gm. ubar/über, Goth. ufarō, ON yfir, Gaul. Uertragus, Ir. for/for, Pers. upariy/bar, Welsh gwarthaf, Oscan supruis, Umbrian super, Arm. ver, Av. upairi
*h₂wap- bad, evil Hitt. uwapp, Eng. yfel/evil, Gm. ubil/Übel, Goth. ubils
*h₂yuh₁ení- young OCS junu, Russ. юный (junyj), Skr. युवन् (yuvan), Gaul. Jovincillus, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Eng. geong/young, Av. yavan, Lat. juvĕnis, Umbrian iuengar , Gm. jung/jung, ON ungr, Goth. juggs, Welsh ieuanc, Ir. óc/óg, Pers. javān
*h₂éd-es- cereal Hitt. hattar, Lat. ador, Gm. ezzesc/Esch, Goth. atisk, Toch. āti/atiyo, Av. āðūfrāðana, Arm. hat/had; hačam, Gk. azein, Lith. adýti; ãdata
*h₂éǵros field Skr. अज्र (ajra), Gk. ἀγρός (agros), Lat. ager, Umbrian ager, Goth. akrs, Eng. æcer/acre, Arm. art/ard, Gm. achar/Acker, ON akr
*h₂ént-i front Hitt. anta, Luw. hantili, 'Lyc. xñtawata, Lith. ant, Eng. ende/end, Gm. endi/Ende, Goth. and, ON endr, Gk. ἀντί (anti), Ir. étan/éadan, Lat. antiae, Oscan ant, Toch. ānt/ānte, Alb. anë, Skt. ántas; antyas, Oss. ändä; ändagon
*h₂érkʷo- bow Lat. arcus, Goth. arƕazna, Eng. arwe/arrow, Gk. ἄρκευθος (arkeuthos)?, Russ. ракита (rakita), Polish rakieta, Ltv. ērkšķis, ON ǫrvar, Umb. arçlataf
*h₂éwiǵ- oats Lat. avēna, Lith. aviža, Ltv. auza, Russ. овёс (ovjos), Polish owies, Gk. αἰγίλωψ (aigilōps)/, Old Prussian wyse, OCS ovĭsŭ
*h₂éy-es- (nom. h₂eyos, gen. h₂eyesos) metal Skr. अयस् (ayas), Lat. aes, Umbrian ahesnes, Gm. ēr/Erz, Eng. ār/ore, Av. ayah, Goth. aiz, ON eir, Pers. āhan
*h₂éǵʰ-r/n̥- day Skr. अहर् (ahar), Av. azan
*h₂ó-sd-o- branch Arm. ost/vost/vosd, Gk. ὄζος (ózos), OEng. ōst, Gm. ast/Ast, Goth. asts, Hitt. ašduēr