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Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/p

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*pasto- solid Skr. पस्त्य (pastyá), Gm. festi/fest, Eng. fæst/fast Arm. hast/hasd, Goth. fastan, ON fastr
*peg- breast Skr. पक्ष (pakṣá), Lat. [[pectus#Template:lang:la|pectus]], Ltv. paksis, Russ. пах (pax), Toch. päśśäṃ/päścane, OIr. ucht
*peh₂- to protect Skr. पाति (pā́ti); pātram, Toch. pās/pāsk, Gk. pōy; pōma; ποιμήν (poimēn), Lat. pāstum, Gm. fōtar/Futter, Eng. fothor/; fōdder/, Lith. piemuō, Goth. fōdjan; fōdr, Av. pāiti, Pers. 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠 (xšaçapāvā)/پاییدن (pāyīdan), ON føða; fōðr, Arm. hauran
*peh₃i- to drink Russ. пить (pit'), Skr. पिबति (píbati), Gk. πίνω (pinō), Alb. pi, Ir. ibim/ibh, Welsh yfed, Polish pić, Lith. puota, Old Prussian poieiti, Hitt. pas, Thrac. pinon, Arm. əmpelik'/əmbelik', Lat. bibere, Umbrian puni, OCS пити (piti)
*peḱ- to pluck *peḱ-u- "cattle"; Gk. pokos; πέκω (pekō), Lat. pecū; pecus, Lith. pekus, Old Prussian pecku, Skr. पशु (páśu), Kurd. pas, Av. pasu, Goth. faihu, Eng. feoh/fee, ON fé, Gm. fihu/vieh, Arm. asr, Gaul. equs
*pekʷ- to cook, become ripe Lat. coquere, Alb. pjek, Russ. пеку (peku), Skr. पचति (pácati), Toch. päk/päk, Welsh pobi, Gk. πέσσω (pessō), Kamviri puk, Lith. kepti, Ltv. cept, OCS pekǫ, Pers. /پختن (pukhtan), Polish piekę, Old Prussian pektis, Eng. āfigen/
*pel- flour Old Prussian pelwo, Lat. palea, Skr. पलाल (palāva), Lith. pelūs, Ltv. pelus, Russ. полова (polova), Polish plewa
*pel- gray Alb. plak, Arm. alik', Skr. पलित (palitá), Av. pouruša, Pers. /pūrū, XMK pellus, Gk. poliós; πελιτνός (pelitnós), Lat. palleō; pullus, Ir. liath/, Welsh llwyd, Lith. pelekas, Ltv. pelēks, Old Prussian pele, OCS plavŭ, Russ. пелёсый (pelësyj), ON fǫlr, Gm. falo/falb, Eng. fealo/fallow
*pel- skin Gk. pélas; πέλμα (pelma), Lat. pellis, Russ. пелена (pelena), Goth. fill, Gm. fël/Fell, Eng. filmen/film, ON fjall, Lith. palà; plėnė, Ltv. plēne, Old Prussian pleynis, Alb. plah; pleh; pluhur
pelh₂- flat Hitt. pališ, Arm. hoł; lain, Lith. plónas; platùs, Ltv. plãns; plañdît, Old Prussian plonis, Ir. lian/; lethan/; lethaid/, Welsh lleyn; llwyn; lledu, Eng. feld/field; /flat Gm. feld/feld, Gk. platýs; πλανάω (planaō); πλάσσω (plassō), Skr. पृथु (pṛthú), Av. fraθah, Lat. plānus, Polish pole; płaski, Russ. плоский (ploskij); nidar ploskŭ, OCS ploskŭ
*pent- road Lat. pons, Gk. πόντος (pontos), Skr. पथिन् (páthin), Av. pantå, Russ. путь (put'), Goth. finþan, Eng. findan/find, Gm. findan/finden, ON finna, Arm. hown, Kamviri put, Old Prussian pintis, OIr. étain; áitt, OCS пѫть (pǫtĭ), Pers. paθim
*perd- to fart Russ. пердеть (perdet'), Skr. पर्दते (párdate), Lith. persti, Ltv. pirst, Phryg. perdomai, Alb. pjerth; pordhë, Eng. feortan/fart, Gm. ferzan/furzen, ON freta, Polish pierdzieć, Gk. πέρδομαι (perdomai), Av. pərəðaiti, Welsh rhech
*perkʷu- oak see Perkwunos. Lat. quercus, Lith. Perkúnas, Ltv. pērkons, Skr. पर्कटी (parkaṭī), Hindi pargai, ON fura, Eng. furh/fir, Gm. foraha/Föhre, Welsh perth, Goth. faírguni, Alb. shpardh/shparr
*pers- dust Toch. pärs/pärs, Av. paršuya, Lith. purkšti, Ltv. pārsla, ON fors, Hitt. pappars, Skr. पृषत् (pṛ́ṣat), OCS прахъ (praxŭ), Russ. прах (prax)
*persn-eh₂- heel Lat. perna/pernis, Skr. पार्ष्णि (pā́rṣṇi), Hitt. parsina, Goth. fairsna, Gm. fërsana/Ferse, Gk. πτέρνη (pternē), Eng. fiersn/— , Pers. -/پاشنا (pāshnā), Lith. pentinas
*perḱ- rib Lith. pìršys, Skr. पर्शु (párśu), Av. parəsu, Osset. fars, OCS prŭsi, Alb. parz(ëm)
*pes- penis Gk. πέος (peos), Lat. pēnis, Gm. faselt/Fasel, ON fösull, Eng. fæsl/-, Skr. पसस् (pásas)
*pet- to fly Eng. feðer/feather, Gm. fedarah/Feder, ON fjǫðr, Lat. petō; penna; accipiter, Skr. पतति (pátati), Hitt. pattar, Gk. ptéron; píptein; πέτομαι (petomai); ōkupétēs, Welsh eterin, Pers. udapatatā/, Arm. t'č'im; t'ir, Ir. ette/; én/, Welsh edn, Av. pataiti, Ltv. pētīt, Alb. shpendë
*pet- to open arms Gk. petannýnai, Lat. patēre; pandere, Av. paθana, OPruss pettis, Lith. petỹs, Eng. fæðm/fathom, ON faðmr, Gm. fadam/Faden; fademōn/, Scottish Gaelic aitheamh, Welsh edau, Alb. pjetem, Hitt. pattar
*ph₂tḗr father Lat. [[pater#Template:lang:la|pater]], Oscan 𐌓𐌝𐌕𐌀𐌐 (patír), Umbrian 𐌓𐌄𐌕𐌀𐌐𐌖𐌈 (iupater), Gk. πατήρ (patēr), Toch. pācar/pācer, Arm. hair, Gaul. ātir; Ateronius, Skr. पितृ (pitṛ́), Gm. fater/Vater, Ir. athir/athair, Eng. fæder/father, Welsh gwaladr; edryd; edrydd; edryf, Kashmiri petū'r, Avest. ptā (dat. fədrōi), Pers. 𐎱𐎡𐎫𐎠 (pitā) / پدر (pedar), Osset. fyd/fidæ, ON faðir, Goth. 𐍆𐌰𐌳𐌰𐍂 (fadar)
*pisd-eh₂- vulva Russ. пизда (pizdá), Lith. pyzdà, Ltv. pīzda, Alb. pidh, Nuristani pəṛí
*pleh₂k- to hit Lat. plangō; plága, Eng. flōk/fluke, Eng. flōcan/, Gk. plēgḗ; πλήσσω (plēssō), OCS plakati, Russ. плакать (plakat'), Polish płakać, Lith. plakti, Ir. lén; léssaim, Alb. ploje, Goth. flōkan, ON flókinn, Gm. fluoh/Fluch
*pleḱ- to plait/braid Gk. πλέκω (plekō); plokē, Lat. plectere; plicare, ON flétta, Goth. flahto, Gm. flehtan/flechten, Eng. fleohtan/; /flax; /flex, Skr. प्रश्न (praśna), Av. ərəzato frašnəm, OCS плєсти (plestí), Russ. плести (plestí), Polish pleść, Alb. plaf, Lith. pinti
*pléu-mon- lung Gk. πλεύμων (pleumōn), Skr. क्लोमन् (klóman), Lith. plaučiai, Ltv. plaušas, Russ. плюче (pljuče), Old Prussian plauti, Serb. pluća
*plōu- flea Lat. pūlex, Lith. blusà, Ltv. blusa, Russ. блоха (blokhá), Polish pchła, Arm. lu, Skr. प्लुषि (plúṣi), Gk. ψύλλα (psýlla), Alb. plesht, Pashto vrāž.a, ON flo, Eng. flēah/flea, Gm. flōh/Floh, Yidgha frīgo
*pénkʷe five Alb. pesë/pêsë, Old Prussian pēnkjāi, Lith. penki, Ltv. pieci, Goth. fimf, Gm. fimf/fünf, Eng. fīf/five, ON fimm, Phryg. pinke, Gk. πέντε (pénte), Arm. hing/hing/hink, Av. pača, Kashmiri pā.~tsh, Kamviri puč, Luw. panta, Osset. fondz, Pers. پنج (panj), OCS pętĭ, Polish pięć, Russ. пять (pjat'), Skr. पञ्चन् (páñcan), Toch. päñ/piś, Lat. quinque, Oscan pompe, Umbrian pumpe, Welsh pump, Ir. cóic/cóig, Gaul. pempe
*pneu- to breathe Gk. πνεῦμα (pneuma), ON fnysa, Eng. fnēosan/sneeze Gm. fnehan/
*pṓds foot Lith. pėda, Ltv. pēda, Lat. pēs, Umbrian peři, Skr. पद् (pád), Eng. fōt/foot, Arm. votk'/vodk', Gk. πούς (pous), Alb. poshtë; për-posh, Toch. pe/paiyye, Osset. fad, Gm. fuoz/Fuß, OCS pēs, Russ. пеший (pešij), Polish pieszy, Old Prussian pe'da', Hitt. pata, Lyc. pede-, Luw. pati-, Av. pâdha, ON fótr, Goth. fotus, Pers. 𐎱𐎠𐎭 (pāda) / پا (), Gaul. candetum, MIr. ined, XMK argiopus
*poymno- foam Lat. pūmex; spuma, Lith. spaine, Skr. फेन (phéna), OCS pĕna, Polish piana, Russ. пена (pena), Eng. fām/foam, Gm. feim/Feim, Osset. fink, Old Prussian spoayno
*porḱo- farrow Lat. porcus, Gk pórkos, Lith. paršas, Old Pruss. parstian, Russ. поросята (porosjata), Polish prosię; prosiak, Eng. fearh/farrow, Ir. orc/orcán, Gm. farah/Ferkel, Umbrian purka, Kurd. purs, Saka pāsa
*pray- to like Skr. प्रीणाति (prīṇā́ti), OCS prĕjǫ, Russ. прижать (prižat'), Ltv. prieks, Gk. πρᾶος (praos), Av. frā/, Goth. freis; frijōn, Eng. /free; frēond/friend, Gm. friunt/Freund, Polish przyjaźń(?); sprzyjać, ON Frigg, Welsh rhydd, Ir. ríar/
*preu- to jump Russ. прыгать (prygat'), Skr. प्रवते (pravate), Gm. frosc/Frosch, Eng. frogga/frog, ON froskr, Lith. sprūgstu/sprūgti, Alb. fryj, Pers. paredan
*preḱ- to ask, to pray Lat. poscō, Toch. prak/prek, Skr. पृच्छति (pṛccháti), Arm. harċ, OCS prositi, Russ. просить (prosit'), Lith. piršti, Ltv. pirstlis, Gm. frāga/fragen; forscōn/forschen, , Eng. frignan/—, ON fregna, Goth. fraihnan, Pers. fraθ- / پرسیدن (pursīdan), Av. pərəsaiti, Oscan aparsam, Arm. harc'nel, MWelsh erchi/archaf, Ir. arco/, Toch. pärk/prek, Umbrian pepurkurent
*prih₁-mó- / *prō-to- foremost
(-> first)
Alb. parë, Av. parvō, Lith. pirmas, Ltv. pirmais, Gm. furist/Fürst; fruo/früh, Eng. fyrst/first, Gk. πρότερος (proteros), Hitt. para, Ir. rem/roimh, Kamviri pürük, Lyc. pri, OCS pĭrvŭ, Oscan perum, ON fyrstr, Old Prussian pariy, Osset. fyccag; farast/farast, Polish pierwszy, Russ. первый (pervyj), Skr. pūrvā; प्रथम (prathamá), Toch. parwät/parwe, Lat. primus, Umbrian pert, Welsh rwyf, OIr. arsaid
*psten- breast Gk. στῆθος (stēthos), Arm. stin/sdin, Skr. स्तन (stána), Av. fštāna, Lith. spenys, Ltv. spenis, ON speni, Gm. spunni/Spanferkel, Ir. sine/sine, Old Pruss. spenis, Pers. /پستان (pestān), Eng. spane/
*puhr- wheat Skr. पूर (pūra), Gk. πυρός (puros)/, Lith. pūrai, Ltv. pūŗi, Old Prussian pure, Eng. fyrs/furze, OCS pyre, Russ. пырей (pyrej)
*pulh₂- hair Skr. pulakās; (पुलस्ति (pulastí), पुलक (pulaka)), Ir. ul/ulcha, Gk. pýligges; (πυλεών (puleōn)), Kurd. pūr, Pashto pal
*péh₂wr̥- (gen. *ph₂un-ós) bonfire Hitt. 𒉺𒀪𒄯 (paḫḫur), Toch. por/pūwar, Gk. πῦρ (pýr), Umbrian pir, ON fúrr, Eng. fȳr/fire, Polish perz, Arm. հուր (hur), Gm. fiur/Feuer, Old Prussian panno, Oscan purasiai, Goth. 𐍆𐍉𐌽 (fōn), Czech pýř