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Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/s

Definition from Dictionary, a free dictionary
Love is the extra effort we make in our dealings with those whom we do not like and once you understand that, you understand all. This idea that love overtakes you is nonsense. This is but a polite manifestation of sex. To love another you have to undertake some fragment of their destiny.
Quentin Crisp
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Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mei- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. смеяться (smejat'sja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. μεῖδος (meidos), Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. μέρμερος (mermeros), Arm. mormok'/mormos/mormos, Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. nēþla, ON nál, Russ. нить (nit'), Lat. neō, Gk. νήθω (nēθō), Welsh nodwydd
*(s)táwros- bison, bull Av. staora, Goth. stiur, Lith. tauras, Ltv. tauriņš, Gk. ταῦρος (tauros), Gaul. Tarbos, OCS turu, Russ. тур (tur), Polish tur, Eng. steor/steer, Gm. stior/Stier, Old Prussian tauris, Welsh tarw, ON stjórr, Lat. taurus, Oscan turuf, Alb. taroç, Ir. tarb/
*(s)teg- *(s)tegō [1ps]) to cover Gk. στέγω (stegō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог (stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂-i- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. τηΰσιος (tēüsios)/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. στεῖρα (steira), Lat. sterilis, Arm. sterj/sderč, Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. stairō, Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*(sm̥-)ǵʰéslo- thousand Skr. सहस्रम् (sahasram), Av. hazarəm, Pers. /hāzar, Gk. χίλιοι (khilioi), Lat. mīlle, Toch. wälts/yaltse
*saws- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухой (suxoj), Gk. List of Proto-Indo-European roots/s (hauos) /, Lat. sūdus
*sed- to sit OCS сѣдѣти (sěděti), Russ. сидеть (sidet'), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. sitan, Gk. ἕζομαι (hezomai)/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सीदामि (sīdati), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. nstil/nsdil, Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*segʰ- to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω (ekhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seh₁- to sow Russ. сеять; семя (seyat'; semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS сѣти (sěti), Gm. sāen/säen, ON sá, Goth. saian, Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seh₁i- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ἠθέω (ētheō), Russ. сито (sito), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. sōkjan, ON sǿkja, Gk. ἡγέομαι (hēgeomai), Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι (hepomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. ἔλπος (elpos), Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. salbon
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ama, Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
*sḗm, *sm̥- [prefix] one, together Lat. semel, Arm. mi/mek/meg, Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. εἷς (heis), Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. сам (sam), Skr. सकृत् (sakt), Toch. sas/e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. sama
*semi- half Lat. sēmis, Gm. sami/—, Eng. sām-/sand-blind, Goth. sami-, Skr. समि (sami), Gk. ἥμισυς (hēmisus), Kamviri sâmaũ
*senh₁ó- old Lat. senex, Lith. senas, Ltv. sens, Gaul. Senognatus, ON sina, Skr. सन (sana), Av. hana, Arm. hin, Gk. ἕνος (henos), Welsh hyn, Goth. sineigs, Ir. sen/
*septḿ̥ seven Arm. evt'n/yot'/yot'ĕ, Alb. shtatë/shtatë, Lith. septyni, Ltv. septiņi, Gaul. sextan, Gm. sibun/sieben, Eng. seofon/seven, Gk. ἑπτά (hepta), Av. hapta, Ir. secht/seacht, Hitt. šipta-, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Lat. septem, Oscan seften, ON sjau, Old Prussian septīnjai, Osset. avd/avd, Pers. /haft, OCS сєдмь (sedmĭ), Polish siedem, Russ. семь (sem'), Skr. सप्तन् (saptán), Toch. pät/ukt, Goth. sibun, Welsh saith
*septm̥-ḱómt-h₂ seventy Lat. septuāgintā, Gk. ἑβδομήκοντα (hebdomēkonta), Ir. /seachtó, Skr. सप्तति (saptati)
*serpe- to creep Alb. gjarpër/gjarpën, Gk. ἕρπω (herpō), Lat. serpō, Skr. सृप् (sp), Kashmiri so.rūph
*sewyós left (direction), left-hand Skr. सव्य (savya), Welsh aswy, Av. haoya, Toch. —/saiwai, OCS šujĭ, Russ. шуй (šuj)
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον (skandalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа (ščepa), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. σκεπάρνιον (skeparnion), Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. mauruk/maurug, Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*smeru- grease Ir. smiur/, Gk. σμύρις (smuris), Lat. medulla, Gm. smero/Schmer, Welsh mer, Eng. smerian/smear, Polish smar, Toch. /mare, Lith. smarsas, ON smjǫr, Goth. smaírþr
*sneigʷʰ- snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег (sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. νίφα (nipha), Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. snaiws, Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*sneudʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. νοῦθος (nouthos), Lat. nūbēs
*snusós daughter-in-law Skr. स्नुषा (snuā), Eng. snoru/—, Gk. νυός (nuos), Lat. nurus, Arm. nu, OCS snŭxa, Polish snecha, Russ. сноха (snoxa), Alb. nusa, Crimean Gothic schuos, ON snor, Gm. snur/Schnur
*sáls, *séh₂ls salt Lat. sāl, Umbrian salu, Toch. sāle/sālyiye, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sāļš, Eng. sealt/salt, Gk. ἅλς (hals), Arm. aġ, Ir. salann/, OCS соль (solĭ), Russ. соль (sol'), Gm. salz/Salz, Polish sól, Welsh halen, Alb. gjelbson, ON salt, Goth. salt, Old Prussian sal, Skr. सलिल (salila), Illyr. Salapia
*s(w)okʷós sap, resin Alb. gjak, Gk. ὀπός (opós), Toch. sak/sekwe, Russ. сок (sok), Lith. sakai, OCS сокъ (sokŭ)
*solwo- whole Toch. salu/solme, Gk. ὅλος (holos), Arm. olj/volj/volč, Ir. slán/slán, Alb. gjallë, Skr. सर्व (sarva), Av. haurva, Kamviri sũdi, Polish sowity, Welsh holl, Lat. salvus, Oscan salavs, Umbrian saluvom, Russ. сулей (sulej), Pers. haluva/, OCS sulĕi
*sp(y)eu- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. πτύω (ptuō), OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. spiewan, Skr. ष्टीवति (īvati), Av. spāma, Arm. t'us, Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion?, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν (splēn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. p'aycałn/p'aycaġ/p'aydzaġ, OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка (selezjonka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. arbi/arpi, Alb. gjerbë, Gk. ῥοφέω (rhopheō), Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать (sjorbat'), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать (stat'), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. standan, ON stóð, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. ἵστημι (histēmi), Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. stanam/sdanam, Lyc. ta-
*steygh- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. steigan, ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. στίχος (stikhos), Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достигать (dostigat'), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*suh₁- swine Eng. sū/sow, Ltv. sivēns, Russ. свин (svin), Skr. सूकर (sūkara), Alb. thi, Gk. ὗς (hus), Gm. sū/Sau, Toch. —/suwo, Ir. socc/soc, Welsh hwch, Polish świnia, Lat. sūs, Umbrian sif, ON sýr, Goth. swein, Av.
*suro- cheese Lith. sūris, Russ. сыр (syr), ON surr, Alb. hirrë, Polish ser
*swe- self, oneself (third person reflexive enclitic pronoun) Carian sfes, Lyd. śfa-, OPruss. sien; sin, Lith. savo, Latv sevi, Gm. sih/sich; sin/sein, Goth. sik, Gk. ἑός (heos), Skr. sva, OCS se, Phryg. ve, ON sik; sinn, Eng. sīn/--, Alb. vetë, Lat. sē; sibi; suus, Oscan sífeí, Umbrian seso, Av. hva, Arm. ink's, Russ. sebja
*swésōr sister Eng. sweostor/sister, Gm. swester/Schwester, Skr. स्वसृ (svas), OCS сєстра (sestra), Russ. сестра (sestra), Polish siostra, Kamviri sus, Ir. siur/siur, Arm. k'uyr, Toch. ar/er, Gk. ἔορ (eor)/—, Lat. soror. Welsh chwaer, Gaul. suiior, ON systir, Goth. swistar, Av. xvahar, Lith. sesuo, Old Prussian swestro, Pers. /xāhar
*swȇḱuros father-/mother-in-law Russ. свекровь (svekrov'), Skr. श्वशुर (śvaśura); श्वश्रू (śvaśrū), Lith. šešuras, Gm. swigur/Schwieger, Welsh chwegr, Arm. skesur/sgesur, Gk. ἑκυρός (hekuros), Lat. socrus, Alb. vjehërr, Kamviri č.uč., Eng. swēor/—, Av. xvasura-, Polish świekra, Goth. swaíhrō, ON svǽra, OCS svekŭrŭ
*sweh₂d-u- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. ἡδύς (hēdus), Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sötr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. sutis, Toch. swār/swāre
*swey- to whistle Russ. свист (svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. σίζω (sizō)/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. swiglōn, Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweid- sweat Arm. k'rtink'/k'rdink', Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. ἱδρόω (hidroō), Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. swiltan, ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. ἥλιος (hēlios), Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. ὕπνος (hupnos), Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон (son), Arm. k'nel, Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сыпать (sypat'), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. saurga, Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. erk/erg
*swéḱs six Arm. vec'/vec'/vec', Alb. gjashtë, Lith. šeši, Ltv. seši, Gaul. suex, Gm. sēhs/sechs, Eng. siex/six, Gk. ἕξ (heks), Av. xš.uuaš, Illyr. ses-, Ir. sé/sé, Kashmiri śe, Kamviri u, Lat. sex, Oscan sehs, ON sex, Old Prussian usjai, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Pers. /šeš, OCS šestĭ, Polish sześć, Russ. шесть (šest'), Skr. षष् (a), Toch. äk/kas, Umbrian sehs, Goth. saihs, Welsh chwech
*swonos- to sound Skr. स्वनति (svanati), Lat. sonāre, Eng. swan/swan, Gm. swan/Schwan, ON svanr, Av. xvanatčaxra, Ir. senim/seinm
*swordó- black Lat. sordēre, Eng. sweart/swarthy, Gm. swarz/schwarz, Goth. swarts, ON svartr, Lith. sartas
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. siujan, Gk. ὑμήν (humēn), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel
*sóh₂wl̥ sun Lat. sōl, Lith. saulė, Ltv. saule, Welsh haul, Gk. ἥλιος (hēlios), Eng. sigel/—; sunne/sun, OCS slunice, Russ. солнце (solntse), Skr. सूर्य (sūrya), Av. hvarə, Gm. sunna/Sonne, ON sól; sunna, Goth. sauil; sunno, Welsh haul, Ir. súil/súil, Toch. swāñce/swāñco, Kamviri su, Polish słońce, Old Prussian saule, Pers. -farnah-/
*sew- press See Soma; *sú(h₂)-nu- "son": Skr. सूनु (sūnu), Av. hunu, Lith. sūnus, Old Prussian sūnus, Eng. sunu/son, Gm. sunu/Sohn, Goth. sunus, ON sonr, OCS съінъ (synŭ), Russ. сын (syn), Polish syn, Gk. nios?, Old Prussian soūns, Toch. se/soy, Ir. suth/suth, Thrac. sukis