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Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *bʰer-

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Proto-Indo-European

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This entry deals with Proto-Indo-European reconstructed forms, forms that are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Verb

*bʰer-

  1. to bear, carry

Conjugation

Simple thematic present; present stem, active:

Conjugation of *bʰér- Present indicative Imperfect indicative Subjunctive Optative Imperative
Singular 1st *bʰéroh₂ *bʰérom *bʰérōh₂ *bʰéroyh₁m̥ -
2nd *bʰéresi *bʰéres *bʰérēsi *bʰéroys *bʰére
3rd *bʰéreti *bʰéred *bʰérēti *bʰéroyd *bʰéretu
Dual 1st *bʰérowos *bʰérowe *bʰérōwos *bʰéroywe -
2nd *bʰéretes *bʰéretom *bʰérētes *bʰéroytom *bʰéretom
3rd *bʰéretes *bʰéretām *bʰérētes *bʰéroytām *bʰéretām
Plural 1st *bʰéromos *bʰérome *bʰérōmos *bʰéroyme -
2nd *bʰérete *bʰérete *bʰérēte *bʰéroyte *bʰérete
3rd *bʰéronti *bʰérond *bʰérōnti *bʰéroyh₁end *bʰérontu

Participles:

*bʰéronts (masc. nom. sg.), *bʰérontos (masc. gen. sg.)
*bʰérontih₂ (fem. nom. sg.), *bʰérontieh₂ (fem. gen. sg.)

Present stem, mediopassive:

Conjugation of *bʰér- Present indicative Imperfect indicative Subjunctive Optative Imperative
Singular 1st *bʰéroh₂ey *bʰéroh₂e *bʰérōh₂ey *bʰéroyh₂e -
2nd *bʰéreth₂ey *bʰéreth₂e *bʰérēth₂ey *bʰéroyth₂e  ???
3rd *bʰéretoy *bʰéreto *bʰérētoy *bʰéroyto  ???
Dual 1st *bʰérowsdʰh₂ *bʰérowedʰh₂ *bʰérōwosdʰh₂ *bʰéroywedʰh₂ -
2nd  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???
3rd  ???  ???  ???  ???  ???
Plural 1st *bʰéromosdʰh₂ *bʰéromedʰh₂ *bʰérōmosdʰh₂ *bʰéroymedʰh₂ -
2nd *bʰéredʰh₂ue *bʰéredʰh₂ue *bʰérēdʰh₂ue *bʰéroydʰh₂ue *bʰéredʰh₂ue
3rd *bʰérontoy *bʰéronto *bʰérōntoy *bʰéroyro  ???

Participle: *bʰéromnos

Comparison of reflexes in daughter languages

Present indicative active:

Conjugation of *bʰér- PIE Sanskrit Avestan Ancient Greek Latin Old Irish Gothic Old Norse OCS Tocharian A Tocharian B
Singular 1st *bʰéroh₂ bhárāmi phérō ferō biru baíra ber berǫ parem parau
2nd *bʰéresi bhárasi phéreis fers biri baíris berr bereši part part(o)
3rd *bʰéreti bhárati phérei fert berid baíriþ berr beretъ pars paräṃ
Dual 1st *bʰérowos bhárāvas - - - baírōs berum berevě - -
2nd *bʰéretes bhárathas phéreton - - baírats berið bereta - -
3rd *bʰéretes bháratas phéreton - - - - berete - parteṃ
Plural 1st *bʰéromos bhárāmas phéromen ferimus berm(a)i baíram berum beremъ paremäs parem
2nd *bʰérete bháratha phérete fertis *beirthe baíriþ berið berete parc parcer
3rd *bʰéronti bháranti phérousi(n) ferunt ber(a)it baírand bera berǫtъ pary(ñc) pareṃ

Present indicative mediopassive:

Conjugation of *bʰér- PIE Sanskrit Avestan Ancient Greek Latin Old Irish Gothic Old Norse OCS Tocharian A Tocharian B
Singular 1st *bʰéroh₂ey bháre phéromai feror - baírada berumk - parār premar
2nd *bʰéreth₂ey bhárase phérei/phére ferris - baíraza bersk - pärtār partar
3rd *bʰéretoy bhárate phéretai fertur ber(a)ir baírada bersk - pärtär partär
Dual 1st *bʰérowsdʰh₂ bhárāvahe - - - - berumk - - -
2nd (*bhéretʰo-) ??? bhárethe phéresthon - - - berizk - - -
3rd (*bhéreto-) ??? bhárete phéresthon - - - - - - -
Plural 1st *bʰéromosdʰh₂ bhárāmahe pherómetha ferimur - baíranda berumk - premtär premtär
2nd *bʰéredʰh₂ue bháradhve phéresthe feriminī - baíranda berizk - parcär partär
3rd *bʰérontoy bhárante phérontai feruntur bert(a)ir baíranda berask - prentär prentär

Descendants