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Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *h₁nḗh₃mn̥

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This entry deals with Proto-Indo-European reconstructed forms, forms that are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*h₁nḗh₃mn̥ or *h₃néh₃mn̥ (*h₃nómn̥) n.

  1. name


This word has disputed reconstruction; Some reconstruct it with initial *h₁- because of Doric Greek ἔνυμα in 'Ενυμα-κρατίδας, Ενυμαντιάδας. To the initial *h₃-, beside Ancient Greek ὄνομα (ónoma) also points Armenian անուն (anun). Medial *-eh₃- is then reconstructed on the basis of length in Dutch (in Indo-Iranian it arose by Brugmann's law, and in Latin by analogy cōg-nōmen (surname) : co-gnōscō (to know) [< PIE *ǵneh₃]), which doesn't sound too convincing.

OTOH, Ancient Greek ὄνομα (ónoma) could as well be assimilated from earlier *énoma. Moreover, Cowgill and Beekes (1969) have argued that initial e-/o- of Greek and inital a- of Armenian are simply prothetic vowel, i.e. not of laryngeal origin, which would then render the reconstruction as *néh₃mn̥, *nómn̥.

The original paradigm is also somewhat difficult to reconstruct precisely; it might be proterokinetic ablauting *h₁nómn̥ ~ *h₁nm̥éns, or just acrostatic with or without zero grade in weak cases.

At any case, lots of puzzles in this word, despite the fact it has reflexes in (almost) all the daughter branches.


Declension of *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ Singular Dual Plural (collective)
Nominative *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ih₁ *h₁néh₃mō
Vocative *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ih₁ *h₁néh₃mō
Accusative *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ *h₁nḗh₃mn̥ih₁ *h₁néh₃mō
Instrumental *h₁néh₃mn̥(e)h₁  ? *h₁n̥h₃m̥néh₁
Dative *h₁néh₃mn̥ey  ? *h₁n̥h₃m̥néy
Ablative *h₁néh₃mn̥(o)s  ? *h₁n̥h₃m̥nés
Genitive *h₁néh₃mn̥(o)s  ? *h₁n̥h₃m̥nés
Locative *h₁néh₃mn̥(i)  ? *h₁n̥h₃mén(i)