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Appendix:Roman script

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The term Roman script or Roman alphabet is the term used in England for what is known in the United States as the Latin script or Latin alphabet. The term "Roman" has been preferred so that "Latin alphabet" can be reserved for the particular subset of characters that is used for the Latin language.

Not to be confused with a roman font in typography (which remains uncapitalized), having ordinary upright letterforms, in contrast to more cursive, sloped italic fonts.

English alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Old English (Anglo-Saxon) alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
A Æ B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T Þ Ð U ƿ X Y
a æ b c d e f g h ı k l m n o p r ſ s t þ ð u ƿ x y
Usage
  • The start of sentences and words for God are rarely capitalized. Proper nouns are not capitalized.
  • þ and ð are both used to represent the same sound, /θ/ (Modern English th).
  • æ is used to represent the sound /æ/ (Modern English short a)
  • The Tironian nota, is a common abbreviation for and/ond.
  • A stroked þ is a common abbreviation for þæt.
  • A stroke over a letter indicates that an omitted m or n follows.
  • A stroke over g is shorthand for the ge- prefix. Þon̅ is shorthand for þonne.
Appearance
  • Two letters, wynn (ƿ) and thorn (þ) are borrowed Runic characters ( and respectively.)
  • The lowercase form of S is s at the end of words, and ſ elsewhere.
  • d has a rounded shape.
  • f sits below the baseline.
  • g has a distinctive Insular form (ᵹ).
  • ı is dotless.
  • r extends below the baseline.
  • t does not extend above the cross-stroke.
  • y is usually dotted (ẏ).

Bambara alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A B C D E Ɛ F G H I J K Kh L M N -N Ɲ Ŋ O Ɔ P R S Sh T U W Y Z
a b c d e ɛ f g h i j k kh l m n -n ɲ ŋ o ɔ p r s sh t u w y z

Basque alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
Dd Ll Rr Ts Tt Tx Tz
dd ll rr ts tt tx tz

Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č ć d đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Czech alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
A B C D E F G H Ch I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h ch i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Á Č Ď É Ě Í Ň Ó Ř Š Ť Ú Ů Ý Ž
á č ď é ě í ň ó ř š ť ú ů ý ž

Danish alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

Dutch alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y/IJ Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y/ij z

Esperanto alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ H Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V Z
a b c ĉ d e f g ĝ h ĥ i j ĵ k l m n o p r s ŝ t u ŭ v z

Estonian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š Z Ž T U V W Õ Ä Ö Ü X Y
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š z ž t u v w õ ä ö ü x y

Fijian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y
a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w y

Finnish alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

French alphabet

This is the normal French alphabet.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
É À È Ù Â Ê Î Ô Û Ë Ï Ü Ç Œ
é à è ù â ê î ô û ë ï ü ç œ

German alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Although not part of the German alphabet, the following letters are used in German words: Ä, Ö, Ü, and their respective lowercase versions ä, ö, ü, as well as ß (only exists in lowercase).

Gothic alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
𐌰 𐌱 𐌲 𐌳 𐌴 𐌵 𐌶 𐌷 𐌸 𐌹 𐌺 𐌻 𐌼 𐌽 𐌾 𐌿 𐍀 𐍁 𐍂 𐍃 𐍄 𐍅 𐍆 𐍇 𐍈 𐍉 𐍊
a b g d e q z h þ i k l m n j u p r s t w f x ƕ o
  • Each letter also has a numeric value. The letters 𐍁 and 𐍊 are used only as numerals.

Hawaiian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
A E I O U H K L M N P W ʻ
a e i o u h k l m n p w ʻ

Although not part of the Hawaiian alphabet, the following letters are used in Hawaiian words: Ā, Ē, Ī, Ō, Ū, and their respective lowercase versions ā, ē, ī, ō, and ū. The letter T, along with t, can sometimes be found in the place of K and k; this practice is most common on the island of Niʻihau.

Hungarian alphabet

wikisource:Hungarian spelling - Alphabet

Official Hungarian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
A Á B C Cs D Dz Dzs E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö Ő P R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü Ű V Z Zs
a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö ő p r s sz t ty u ú ü ű v z zs

Old Hungarian letters

The letters in the first column may be found in family names. Pronounce them the same as their modern counterparts in the second column.

  • aaá (e.g., Gaal)
  • é (e.g., Veér)
  • ö (e.g., Eötvös)
  • ewö (e.g., Thewrewk)
  • ó (e.g., Soós)
  • yi (e.g., Kölcsey)
  • chcs (e.g., Madách)
  • czc (e.g., Czuczor)
  • szs (e.g., Jósika)
  • tht (e.g., Csáth)
  • tscs (e.g., Takáts)
  • wv (e.g., Wesselényi)

Italian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
À È É Ì Ò Ù
à è é ì ò ù

Latin alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v x y z
Notes about J, K, U, Y and Z
  • K is rare in Latin, and when it is used always precedes an a.
  • Both Y and Z were introduced solely for the writing of borrowed Greek words originally containing υ (upsilon) and ζ (zeta), respectively.
  • The rounded U was not introduced until the second century CE. Prior to that time the letter V served as both vowel and consonant.
  • The "long I", or J, similarly developed from I in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods.

Livonian alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
A Ā Ä Ǟ B C D Ć E Ē F G H I Ī J K L Ļ M N Ņ O Ȯ Ȱ Ö Ȫ Õ Ȭ P Q R Ŗ S Š T Ț U Ū V W X Y Z Ž
a ā ä ǟ b c d ć e ē f g h i ī j k l ļ m n ņ o ȯ ȱ ö ȫ õ ȭ p q r ŗ s š t ţ u ū v w x y z ž

Polish alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
A Ą B C Ć D E Ę F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ó P Q R S Ś T U V W X Y Z Ź Ż
a ą b c ć d e ę f g h i j k l ł m n ń o ó p q r s ś t u v w x y z ź ż
Notes about Q, V and X

Letters Q, V and X do not belong to Polish alphabet but they can be found in certain foreign derived words and names, such as quasi, fax and video.

Portuguese alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Á À Â Ã É Ê Í Ó Ô Õ Ú Ü Ç
á à â ã é ê í ó ô õ ú ü ç
Notes about K, W and Y

K, W and Y are apart of the alphabet but are only seen in certain foreign derived words and names, such as kilowatt, whisky and faraday.

Notes about ch, nh, lh, rr, ss, sc, , xc, xs, gu, qu, an, am, en, em, in, im, on, om, un and um.

All these groups of letters are digraphs. Just gu and qu may be not digraphs, depending on the vowel that follows them and the presence of trema above U (Ü) in the digraph.

Diacritical marks

Portuguese uses several diacritical marks to indicate especial features in their vowels. An ´ (acute) diacritical mark over vowels indicates a vocal stress on a word that would normally be stressed on another syllable. Stress is contrastive. For example, the word fábrica is normally accented on á, meaning "factory", while fabrica is stressed on bri meaning "he produces, manufactures". A ^ (circunflex) diacritical mark also perform these features, but also indicates that the marked vowel is a closed one (in most of situations). The acute mark indicates that the vowel is a opened one (in most of situations). A ` (grave) diacritical mark indicates only that there is a fusion between the preposition a and the article a, forming the sign à. A ~ (til) diacritical mark over vowels indicates that the vowel is a nasal one, when there isn't other signs informing about nasalty (one of the last ten digraphs listed above). Finally, a ¨ (trema) diacritical mark indicates that the U is pronuciated in the word; does not compound neither the digraphs gu nor qu. The acute or the circunflex diacritical marks also may distinguish homographs, but this feature is much less used than in Spanish.

Spanish alphabet

This is the normal Spanish alphabet. However, words are not alphabetized by it. Please read the notes and sections below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C Ch D E F G H I J K L Ll M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c ch d e f g h i j k l ll m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
Notes about Ñ

Ñ is the only new letter. It should always be alphabetized after N no matter where it appears in the word (e.g., muñeca goes after munífico). It is much like the Ñ in English (written N most of the time), seen only in words such as piñata or the original writing of canyon (cañon).

Notes about Ch, Ll, and Rr

Ch and Ll are part of the alphabet, but they are digraphs. Since 1994, they are no longer alphabetized as if they were letters. Aside from Ch and Ll, "rr" is another common digraph but no longer considered a part of the alphabet by the Spanish Academy.

Notes about K and W

K and W are apart of the alphabet but are only seen in certain foreign-derived words and names, such as karate and whisky.

Acute accents

Spanish uses an ´ (acute) diacritical mark over vowels to indicate a vocal stress on a word that would normally be stressed on another syllable. Stress is contrastive. For example, the word ánimo is normally accented on a, meaning "mood, spirit," while animo is stressed on ni meaning "I cheer," and animó is stressed on meaning "he cheered."

Additionally Spanish uses the acute mark to distinguish certain words which would otherwise look the same ("homographs"). The acute accent is used in various question words or relative pronoun pairs such as cómo and como (how), dónde and donde (where), and also in some other words such as (you) and tu (your), él (he/him) and el (the).

A E I O U Y
á é í ó ú ý

Diaeresis

Spanish uses a ¨ (diaeresis, two dots) diacritical mark over the vowel u to indicate that the u is pronounced in places where it would normally be silent. In particular, the u is silent in the letter combinations gue and gui, but in words such as vergüenza (shame) or pingüino (penguin), the u is in fact pronounced, forming a diphthong with the following vowel: [we] and [wi] respectively.

Swedish alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

Turkish alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z
a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z
 ΠÛ
â î û

Vietnamese alphabet

quốc ngữ.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A Ă Â B C D Đ E Ê G H I (J) K L M N O Ô Ơ P Q R S T U Ư V (W) X Y (Z)
a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i (j) k l m n o ô ơ p q r s t u ư v (w) x y (z)
J, W and Z are used only in foreign words; F rarely used by personal preference.
  • Flat tone is not marked
  • High rising tone is marked by an acute accent (ô+◌́= ố)
  • Low tone is marked by a grave accent (ô+◌̀= ồ)
  • Dipping-rising tone is marked by a hook above (ô+◌̉= ổ)
  • High rising glottalized tone is marked by a tilde (ô+◌̃= ỗ)
  • Low glottalized tone is marked by a dot below (ô+◌̣= ộ)

Võro alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š T U V W Õ Ä Ö Ü X Y Z Ž
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š t u v w õ ä ö ü x y z ž


Welsh alphabet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C CH Ch D DD Dd E F FF Ff G NG Ng H I J K L LL Ll M N O P PH Ph R RH Rh S T TH Th U W X Y Z
a b c ch d dd e f ff g ng h i j k l ll m n o p ph r rh s t th u w x y z
Notes about J, K, X and Z

Letters J, K, X and Z are not normally part of the Welsh alphabet but they can be found in certain foreign derived words and names, such as jam, kilometr, pelydr X and zinc.

Notes about CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH and TH

Double letters CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH and TH are classed as single letters in the alphabet and are sorted in the order above. In mixed case writing, where one of these letters occurs where a standard letter would be capitalised (e.g. at the start of a sentence) only the first letter is capitalised - "Llanelli", "yng Nghymru", "Rhagfyr", etc.