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gan

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See also gān, gán, gǎn, gàn, and gần

English

Pronunciation

Etymology

From Old English gān (to go).

Verb

Infinitive
to gan

Third person singular
gans

Simple past
gone

Past participle
went

Present participle
gannin

to gan (third-person singular simple present gans, present participle gannin, simple past gone, past participle went)
  1. (Northumbrian and Template loop detected: Template:context 1) To go.

References

  • The New Geordie Dictionary, Frank Graham, 1987, ISBN 0946928118
  • Newcastle 1970s, Scott Dobson and Dick Irwin, [1]
  • Todd's Geordie Words and Phrases, George Todd, Newcastle, 1977[2]
  • A List of words and phrases in everyday use by the natives of Hetton-le-Hole in the County of Durham, F.M.T.Palgrave, English Dialect Society vol.74, 1896, [3]
  • Northumberland Words, English Dialect Society, R. Oliver Heslop, 1893-4[4]
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, ISBN 1904794165

Irish

Etymology

From Old Irish cen (besides; without) < Proto-Celtic *kina (besides); cf. Welsh am-gen (otherwise), Breton ken (otherwise).

Pronunciation

  • (Munster) IPA: [ɡɑn̪ˠ]
  • (Connacht, Ulster) IPA: [ɡan̪ˠ]

Preposition

gan

  1. without
  2. not (in conjunction with a verbal noun)

Usage notes

Triggers lenition of b, c, g, m, p on unmodified nouns, e.g. gan phingin "without a penny". Does not trigger lenition on modified nouns, e.g. gan pingin ina phóca "with a penny in his pocket". In the meaning "not", does not trigger lenition on either a verbal noun or on the direct object of the verbal noun, e.g. gan ceannach "not to buy", gan pingin a shaothrú "not to earn a penny".

Unlike most Irish prepositions, gan is followed by the nominative case of nouns, not the dative, and it does not form prepositional pronouns: gan an t-arán "without the bread", gan "without me".


Japanese

Noun

gan (hiragana がん)

  1. ガン: gun
  2. : cancer
  3. : wish
  4. : duck
  5. : alcove

Korean

Noun

gan (Revised Romanization of , , , )

  1. : (attributive form of 가다 "to go")
  2. : gap, interval, space
  3. : liver
  4. : rape, adultery

Kurdish

Verb

gan (present stem -gê-)

  1. to have sex with somebody, to fuck somebody

Noun

gan

  1. having sex, fucking

Mandarin

Pinyin syllable

gan

  1. A transliteration of any of a number of Chinese characters properly represented as having one of four tones, gān, gán, gǎn, or gàn.

Usage notes

English transcriptions of Chinese speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Chinese language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.


Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *gǣ-, gai-. The verb was defective in Germanic and may only have existed in the present tense. Cognate with Old Saxon -gan (Dutch gaan), Old High German gan (German gehen), Old Norse (Swedish ).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /gɑːn/

Verb

gān

  1. to go

Conjugation

Anomalous
present singular plural
1st person gāþ
2nd person gǣst
3rd person gǣþ
subjunctive gān
preterite singular plural
1st person ēode ēodon
2nd person ēodest
3rd person ēode
subjunctive ēode ēoden
imperative singular plural
gāþ
participle present past
gangende (ġe)gān, (ġe)gangen


Descendants


Scots

Etymology

From the Old English gān (to go).

Verb

tae gan (third-person singular simple present gans, present participle gan, simple past went or wett, past participle been)

Infinitive
tae gan

Third person singular
gans

Simple past
went or wett

Past participle
been

Present participle
gan

  1. Present participle of tae gan; to go

Welsh

Noun

gan

  1. Mutated form of can.


Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
can gan nghan chan

Preposition

gan

  1. with

Usage notes

See Geiriadur.net for more information.

Elsewhere on the web

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